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English Grammar 

by Anthony Hughes 



Introduction □ 

Table of Contents □ 

Subject Index □ 

About this Version □ 



O copyright. Anthony Hunhea20Q1 all rights reserved 



The Online English Grammar 

by Anthony Hughes 



main page 



contents 



subject Index 



A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|||L|K|L|M|N|0|P|Q|R|S|I|U|\/|W|X|Y|Z 



ABOUT THIS VERSION 



PDF Version 1.1 

This full PDF version of the Online English Grammar has a number of 
advantages over the version that you can find online for public viewing: 

• It covers more grammar topics than the online version 

. You can view it on your desktop as an easy reference guide 

• It is easy to print out pages from this version using any standard 
printer 

• You can access regular updates to the Online English Grammar now 
that you have purchased this copy. All that is required is that you 
supply your username and password to begin the download. You will 
receive regular emails when new updates are available. The update 
subscription is valid for one year from the date you purchased the 
item from us. 

WHAT ELSE IS PLANNED? 

After the outstanding response to our release of the Online English Grammar 
as a desktop edition, we are developing a range of new English language 
guides and worksheets to help both students and teachers with their English 
language requirements. These guides and worksheets will all be available as 
downloads from our website at http://www.English4Today.com and you will 
be notified of their release as we publish them. At the moment we have the 
following under development: 

• English grammar worksheets for teachers and students 
. A Writer's Guide to Using English 

• Writing Letters 

• A Guide to English Pronunciation 

• Grammar Games Pack 

We are also in the process of working on Version 2.0 of the PDF Version of 
the Online English Grammar - adding even more sections, sound files and 
exercises. 



The Full PDF Online English Grammar VI. 1 ©copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony Hughes 



The Enqlish4Todav Members' Website 



The Online English Grammar 

by Anthony Hughes 



main page 



contents 



subject Index 



A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|||L|K|L|M|N|0|P|Q|R|S|I|U|\/|W|X|Y|Z 



MAIN SUBJ ECT INDEX 



1. active/ passive equivalents 

Keywords: active, passive equivalent 

2. as +adjective +as 

Keywords: as, adjective 

3. as present participle 

Keywords: present participle , with verbs of movement with verbs of perception, as adjective with 
spend, with waste, with catch, with find, replacing time clause, replacing reason clause 

4. certainty 

Keywords: certainly, definitely, probably, surely 

5. changes of time and place reference 
Keywords: time reference, place reference 

6. common irregular verbs - group 1 
Keywords: irregular verbs 

7. common irregular verbs - group 2 
Keywords: irregular verbs 

8. common irregular verbs - group 3 
Keywords: irregular verbs 

9. comparative +than 

Keywords: comparative, than, adjective 

10. comparative form 
Keywords: comparative, adverbs 

11. comparatives & superlatives 

Keywords: comparatives, superlatives, adjectives 

12. comparisons of Quantity - showing no difference 
Keywords: quantity, comparison, adjective, difference 

13. comparisons of Quantity - menu 
Keywords: quantity, comparison, adjective 

14. comparisons of Quantity - showing difference 
Keywords: quantity, comparison, adjective, difference 

15. compound nouns 

Keywords: compound nouns, phrasal verbs 

16. countable & uncountable 

Keywords: countable, uncountable, noun 

17. defining relative clauses 

Keywords: defining relative clauses 

18. defining words - which, whose 
Keywords: which, whose 

19. degree - enough, very,too,extremely,almost etc 

Keywords: enough, very, too, extremely, almost, nearly, completely 

20. demonstratives - this.that, these, those etc 

Keywords: this, that, these, those, determiners 

21. difference words - other,another 
Keywords: other, another 

22. distributives- all, both, half 

Keywords: all, both, half, distributives, determiners 

23. distributives- each, every, either, neither 
Keywords: each, every, either, neither 

24. distributives - menu 

Keywords: all, both, half, each, every, either, neither 

25. examples 

Keywords: get, got, getting 

26. exceptions to using the definite article 



Keywords: no definite article, determiner, exceptions 

27. form - adjectives 

Keywords: gender, position, form, adjective 

28. form - adverb 

Keywords: adverb, form 

29. form -past 

Keywords: be +past participle 

30. form, with or without 'to' 
Keywords: to-infinitive, zero infinitive 

31. function 

Keywords: order, adjectives, function 

32. function 

Keywords: adverb, function 

33. function 

Keywords: function, infinitive of purpose, infinitive as subject, infinitive after adjectives, infinitive 
with too/ enough 

34. function 

Keywords: unknown agent, subject, by formal/ scientific texts 

35. future continuous 

Keywords: future, actions in progress 

36. future forms - introduction 
Keywords: future, attitude 

37. future forms - simple future 

Keywords: will/ shall, prediction, decision, future facts, certainty 

38. future perfect 

Keywords: future, completed actions 

39. future perfect continuous 

Keywords: unfinished, future time 

40. future with 'going to' 
Keywords: plans, intentions 

41. gerund or infinitive? 

Keywords: gerund/ infinitive-, no difference in meaning 

42. gerund/ infinitive - difference in meaning 
Keywords: gerund/ infinitive, difference in meaning 

43. gerunds 

Keywords: gerund, as subject, after prepositions, after phrasal verbs, in compound nouns, can't 
stand. can't help 

44. get, got, getting 
Keywords: get, got, getting 

45. get/ have something done, x needs doing 
Keywords: get, need 

46. if sentences with conditional perfect continuous 

Keywords: conditional perfect continuous 

47. if sentences with if + past, would, present condtional 
Keywords: if +past, would, present condtional 

48. if sentences with if, condtional tenses 
Keywords: if, condtional tenses 

49. if sentences with if-mot, unless, verbs 
Keywords: if-mot, unless, verbs 

50. if sentences with mixed conditionals 

Keywords: mixed conditionals 

51. if sentences with perfect conditional, if + past perfect 
Keywords: perfect conditional, if +past perfect 

52. if sentences with wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if only 
Keywords: wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if only 

53. if setences with present continuous conditional 

Keywords: present continuous conditional 

54. infinitive after Question words 

Keywords: infinitive, question words 

55. interrogative - why, where, how, when 
Keywords: why, where, how, when 

56. introduction - defining relative clauses, non-defining relative clauses 
Keywords: defining relative clauses, non-defining relative clauses 

57. introduction - irregular verbs 



Keywords: verbs, irregular 

58. introduction - present participle, gerund 

Keywords: present participle, gerund 

59. introduction - reported speech, 'that', say, tell, talk, speak 
Keywords: reported speech, 'that 1 , say, tell, talk, speak 

60. irregular comparatives & superlatives 

Keywords: irregular comparatives, superlatives, adjectives 

61. list of common irregular verb 
Keywords: irregular, verbs 

62. main menu - adjectives 
Keywords: adjectives 

63. main menu - adverbs 
Keywords: adverbs 

64. manner - adverbs 

Keywords: adverbs, manner 

65. menu - function and class 

Keywords: determiners, function, class, pre-determiners 

66. menu - kinds of adverbs 

Keywords: kinds, adverbs 

67. menu - nouns 
Keywords: nouns 

68. menu - Quantifiers 

Keywords: much, many, a little, a few, some, any 

69. menu / introduction 

Keywords: menu, introduction, tenses 

70. nationalities 

Keywords: nationalities, country, nouns 

71. negative infinitive 

Keywords: negative infinitive 

72. non-defining relative clauses 

Keywords: relative clauses, non-defining 

73. not as + adjective +as 

Keywords: not, as, so, not as, not so, adjective 

74. noun gender 

Keywords: gender, masculine, feminine, noun 

75. order of adjectives 

Keywords: order, adjectives 

76. other forms of future 

Keywords: is to, obligation, about to, immediate future 

77. other forms of infinitive 

Keywords: perfect infinitive, continuous infinitive, passive infinitive, perfect continuous infinitive 

78. past continuous 

Keywords: past continuous, description, narrative 

79. past perfect 

Keywords: past perfect, just 

80. past perfect continuous 

Keywords: past perfect continuous, process, reported speech 

81. place, adverbs of place 
Keywords: adverbs, place 

82. plurals 

Keywords: singular plural, irregular plural, noun 

83. possessive 

Keywords: possessive, time expressions, apostrophe, names, possessive 

84. possessives 

Keywords: possessive adjectives, possessive pronouns, my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, our, 
ours, their, theirs 

85. pre-determiners 

Keywords: such, what, rather, quite 

86. prepositions in relative clauses 

Keywords: prepositions, relative clauses 

87. present continuous 

Keywords: -ing, verbs, tenses, present participle, verbs not used in continuous form 

88. present continuous for future events 
Keywords: arrangements, future 



89. present perfect 1 

Keywords: present perfect, past participle, irregular verbs 

90. present perfect 2 

Keywords: present perfect, ever, never, already, yet 

91. present perfect 3 

Keywords: present perfect, simple past, time, attitude 

92. present perfect 4 

Keywords: present perfect, for, since 

93. present perfect continous 

Keywords: present perfect continous, present participle 

94. quantifiers 1 - determiners, a few, few, a little, little 
Keywords: determiners, a few, few, a little, little 

95. quantifiers 2 - many.much, more, most etc. 

Keywords: many, much, more, most, little, less, least, few, fewer, fewest 

96. quantifiers 3 - how, much, many, few, lot etc. 

Keywords: how, much, many, few, lot, number, several, countable, uncountable 

97. quantifiers 4 - numbers 

Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions, decimals, units, years, zero 

98. quantifiers 5 - some and any 
Keywords: determiners, quantifiers, some, any 

99. quantifiers 6 - something, somebody, someone etc. 

Keywords: something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone, anywhere, 
nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere, 

100. quantifiers 7 - enough 

Keywords: enough, quantifiers, determiners 

101. question words - which, what, whose 
Keywords: which, what, whose 

102. relative adverbs - which, what, whose 
Keywords: where, when, why 

103. reporting hopes and intentions 

Keywords: hopes, intentions, to-infinitive, that-clause 

104. reporting orders, reguests, suggestions 

Keywords: orders, requests, suggestions, should - omission, that-clause 

105. reporting guestions 

Keywords: reporting yes/ no questions, reporting questions with question words 

106. simple past 

Keywords: simple past, form, function, irregular verbs, irregular verbs, auxiliary 'did', ago 

107. simple present 

Keywords: verbs, tenses, present simple 

108. simple present for future events 
Keywords: future, facts, timetable, calendar 

109. summary 

Keywords: verb tenses, present tenses, perfect tenses, conditional tenses, past tenses, future tenses 

110. summary of reporting verbs 

Keywords: summary, reporting verbs, to-infintive, that-clause 
ill. tense changes 

Keywords: reported speech, tense changes 

112. the +superlative 

Keywords: the, superlative, adjectives 

113. the definite article 
Keywords: the, definite article 

114. the indefinite article 

Keywords: the, indefinite article, a, an 

115. the, a, an 

Keywords: the, a, an, indefinite article, exceptions 

116. time, adverbs of 
Keywords: adverbs, time 

117. type 1 conditional 

Keywords: if +present +future, fact 

118. use of capital letters 

Keywords: capital letters, names, months, days, holidays, seasons, geographical, names, streets, 
buildings, titles of books, nouns 

119. verbs + infinitive with/ without noun 
Keywords: verb with or without noun +infinitive 



120. verbs followed by gerund 
Keywords: verb + gerund 

121. verbs followed by infinitive 
Keywords: verbs + infinitive without a noun 

122. verbs followed by noun + i nf initive 

Keywords: verb +noun +infinitive 

123. viewpoint, commenting 

Keywords: adverbs, viewpoint, commenting 

124. zero conditional 

Keywords: if + present, general truths, instructions 

125. zero infinitive 
Keywords: zero infinitive 



The Full PDF Online English Grammar VI. 1 ©copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony Hughes 



The Enqlish4Today Members' Website 



The Online English Grammar 

by Anthony Hughes 



main page 



contents 



subject Index 



A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|||L|K|L|M|N|0|P|Q|R|S|I|U|\/|W|X|Y|Z 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



General 



About the author 

Which English? 

Ask our English teachers a question 

Visit the members' section of the Enqlish4Today website 



Adjectives 



as +adjective +as 

comparative +than 

comparatives & superlatives 

comparisons of quantity - showing no difference 

comparisons of Quantity - menu 

comparisons of Quantity - showing difference 

form - adjectives 

function 

irregular comparatives & superlatives 

main menu - adjectives 

not as +adjective +as 

order of adjectives 

the +superlative 



Adverbs 



certainty 

comparative form 

degree - enough, very,too,extremelv,almost etc 

form - adverb 

function 

interrogative - why, where, how, when 

main menu - adverbs 

manner - adverbs 

menu - kinds of adverbs 

place, adverbs of place 

relative adverbs - which, what, whose 

time, adverbs of 

viewpoint, commenting 



Determiners 



defining words - which, whose 
demonstratives - this,that, these, those etc 
difference words- other, another 
distributives- all, both, half 
distributives- each, every, either, neither 
distributives - menu 



exceptions to using the definite article 

menu - function and class 

menu - quantifiers 

possessives 

pre-determiners 

quantifiers 1 - determiners.a few, few, a little, little 



quant 



quant 



quant 



quant 



quant 



fiers 2 - many, much, more, most etc. 



fiers 3 - how, much, many.few, lot etc. 



fiers 4 - numbers 



fiers 5 - some and any 



fiers 6 - something, somebody.someone etc. 



quantifiers 7 - enough 



guestion words - which, what, whose 
the definite article 
the indefinite article 
the, a, an 

Direct and Indirect Speech 

changes of time and place reference 

introduction - reported speech, 'that', say, tell, talk, speak 

reporting hopes and intentions 

reporting orders, reguests, suggestions 

reporting guestions 

summary of reporting verbs 

tense changes 

-ING Form 

as present participle 

gerund or infinitive? 

gerund/ infinitive - difference in meaning 

gerunds 

introduction - present participle, gerund 

verbs followed by gerund 

Irregular Verbs 

common irregular verbs - group 1 
common irregular verbs - group 2 
common irregular verbs - group 3 
introduction - irregular verbs 
list of common irregular verb 



Nouns 



compound nouns 

countable & uncountable 

menu - nouns 

nationalities 

noun gender 

plurals 

use of capital letters 



Passive 



active/ passive equivalents 

form -past 

function 

get/ have something done, x needs doing 

Possessive with 's and ' 

possessive 
Relative Clauses 

defining relative clauses 

introduction - defining relative clauses, non-defining relative 

clauses 

non-defining relative clauses 

prepositions in relative clauses 

The Infinitive 



form, with or without 'to' 

function 

infinitive after Question words 

negative infinitive 

other forms of infinitive 

verbs + infinitive with/ without noun 

verbs followed by infinitive 

verbs followed by noun + i nf initive 

zero infinitive 

To Get 

examples 
get, got, getting 

Verbs and Verb Tenses 

future continuous 

future forms - introduction 

future forms - simple future 

future perfect 

future perfect continuous 

future with 'going to' 

if sentences with conditional perfect continuous 

if sentences with if + past, would, present condtional 

if sentences with if.condtional tenses 

if sentences with if-mot, unless, verbs 

if sentences with mixed conditionals 

if sentences with perfect conditional, if +past perfect 

if sentences with wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if only 

if setences with present continuous conditional 

menu / introduction 

other forms of future 

past continuous 

past perfect 

past perfect continuous 

present continuous 



present continuous for future events 

present perfect 1 

present perfect 2 

present perfect 3 

present perfect 4 

present perfect continous 

simple past 

simple present 

simple present for future events 

summary 

type 1 conditional 

zero conditional 



The Full PDF Online English Grammar VI. 1 ©copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony Hughes 



The Enqlish4Today Members' Website 



The Online English Grammar 

by Anthony Hughes 



main page 



contents 



subject Index 



A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|||L|K|L|M|N|0|P|Q|R|S|I|U|\/|W|X|Y|Z 



SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTER 



Your search for items starting with the letter 'A' has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 



Adjectives 



irregular comparatives & superlatives Keywords: irregular 

comparatives, superlatives, adjectives 

main menu - adjectives Keywords: adjectives 

comparisons of quantity - menu Keywords: quantity, comparison, 

adjective 

not as +adj ective + as Keywords: not, as, so, not as, not so, adjective 

as + adjective +as Keywords: as, adjective 

the + superlative Keywords: the, superlative, adjectives 

comparisons of quantity - showing difference Keywords: quantity, 

comparison, adjective, difference 

comparisons of quantity - showing no difference Keywords: 

quantity, comparison, adjective, difference 

comparatives & superlatives Keywords: comparatives, superlatives, 

adjectives 

order of adjectives Keywords: order, adjectives 

function Keywords: order, adjectives, function 

form - adjectives Keywords: gender, position, form, adjective 

comparative + than Keywords: comparative, than, adjective 



Adverbs 



comparative form Keywords: comparative, adverbs 

manner - adverbs Keywords: adverbs, manner 

form - adverb Keywords: adverb, form 

certainty Keywords: certainly, definitely, probably, surely 

time, adverbs Of Keywords: adverbs, time 

relative adverbs - Which, What, Whose Keywords: where, when, why 

interrogative - why, where, how, when Keywords: why, where, 

how, when 

function Keywords: adverb, function 

viewpoint, commenting Keywords: adverbs, viewpoint, commenting 

place, adverbs Of place Keywords: adverbs, place 

degree - enough, very,too,extremely,almost etc Keywords: 

enough, very, too, extremely, almost, nearly, completely 

menu - kinds of adverbs Keywords: kinds, adverbs 

main menu - adverbs Keywords: adverbs 



Determiners 



POSSessives Keywords: possessive adjectives, possessive pronouns, my, 
mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, our, ours, their, theirs 



exceptions to using the definite article Keywords: no definite 

article, determiner, exceptions 

the, a, an Keywords: the, a, an, indefinite article, exceptions 

distributives - menu Keywords: all, both, half, each, every, either, 

neither 

difference words - Other, another Keywords: other, another 

distributives- all, both, half Keywords: all, both, half, distributives, 

determiners 

the indefinite article Keywords: the, indefinite article, a, an 

quantifiers 5 - some and any Keywords: determiners, quantifiers, 

some, any 

quantifiers 6 - something, somebody.someone etc. Keywords: 

something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone, 

anywhere, nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere, 

the definite article Keywords: the, definite article 

-ING Form 

as present participle Keywords: present participle , with verbs of 
movement with verbs of perception, as adjective with spend, with waste, 
with catch, with find, replacing time clause, replacing reason clause 

Passive 

active/ passive equivalents Keywords: active, passive equivalent 



The Full PDF Online English Grammar VI. 1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony Hughes 



The Enqlish4Today Members' Website 



The Online English Grammar 

by Anthony Hughes 



main page 



contents 



subject Index 



A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|||L|K|L|M|N|0|P|Q|R|S|I|U|\/|W|X|Y|Z 



SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTER 



B 

Your search for items starting with the letter 'B' has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 

Determiners 

distributives- all, both, half Keywords: all, both, half, distributives, 

determiners 

distributives - menu Keywords: all, both, half, each, every, either, 

neither 

Passive 

form -past Keywords: be +past participle 



The Full PDF Online English Grammar VI. 1 ©copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony Hughes 



The Enqlish4Todav Members' Website 



The Online English Grammar 

by Anthony Hughes 



main page 



contents 



subject Index 



A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|||L|K|L|M|N|0|P|Q|R|S|I|U|\/|W|X|Y|Z 



SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTER 



Your search for items starting with the letter 'C has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 



Adjectives 



irregular comparatives & superlatives Keywords: irregular 

comparatives, superlatives, adjectives 

comparatives & superlatives Keywords: comparatives, superlatives, 

adjectives 

comparative + than Keywords: comparative, than, adjective 

comparisons of Quantity - showing difference Keywords: quantity, 

comparison, adjective, difference 

comparisons of Quantity - showing no difference Keywords: 

quantity, comparison, adjective, difference 

comparisons Of quantity - menu Keywords: quantity, comparison, 

adjective 



Adverbs 



comparative form Keywords: comparative, adverbs 
certainty Keywords: certainly, definitely, probably, surely 
viewpoint, commenting Keywords: adverbs, viewpoint, commenting 

Determiners 

guantifiers 6 - something, somebody,someone etc. Keywords: 

something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone, 
anywhere, nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere, 

menu - function and class Keywords: determiners, function, class, pre- 
determiners 

Quantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions, 
decimals, units, years, zero 

guantifiers 3 - how, much, many.few, lot etc. Keywords: how, 
much, many, few, lot, number, several, countable, uncountable 

Direct and Indirect Speech 

changes of time and place reference Keywords: time reference, 
place reference 



Irregular Verbs 



common irregular verbs - group 3 Keywords: irregular verbs 
common irregular verbs - group 1 Keywords: irregular verbs 
common irregular verbs - group 2 Keywords: irregular verbs 



Nouns 



nationalities Keywords: nationalities, country, nouns 

use of capital letters Keywords: capital letters, names, months, days, 

holidays, seasons, geographical, names, streets, buildings, titles of books, 

nouns 

countable & uncountable Keywords: countable, uncountable, noun 

compound nouns Keywords: compound nouns, phrasal verbs 

Relative Clauses 

introduction - defining relative clauses, non-defining relative 
clauses Keywords: defining relative clauses, non-defining relative clauses 
prepositions in relative clauses Keywords: prepositions, relative 
clauses 

non-defining relative clauses Keywords: relative clauses, non- 
defining 

Verbs and Verb Tenses 

type 1 conditional Keywords: if + present + future, fact 

present continuous Keywords: -ing, verbs, tenses, present participle, 

verbs not used in continuous form 

future continuous Keywords: future, actions in progress 

zero conditional Keywords: if +present, general truths, instructions 

if sentences with if + past, would, present condtional Keywords: 

if +past, would, present condtional 

if setences with present continuous conditional Keywords: 

present continuous conditional 

if sentences with perfect conditional, if +past perfect Keywords: 

perfect conditional, if +past perfect 

if sentences with conditional perfect continuous Keywords: 

conditional perfect continuous 

if sentences with mixed conditionals Keywords: mixed conditionals 

if sentences with if, condtional tenses Keywords: if, condtional 

tenses 



The Full PDF Online English Grammar VI. 1 ©copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony Hughes 



The Enqlish4Today Members' Website 



The Online English Grammar 

by Anthony Hughes 



main page 



contents 



subject Index 



A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|||L|K|L|M|N|0|P|Q|R|S|I|U|\/|W|X|Y|Z 



SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTER 



Your search for items starting with the letter 'D' has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 

Adverbs 

degree - enough, very.too, extremely, almost etc Keywords: 
enough, very, too, extremely, almost, nearly, completely 

Determiners 



Quantifiers 2 - many.much, more, most etc. Keywords: many, 
much, more, most, little, less, least, few, fewer, fewest 
defining words - which, whose Keywords: which, whose 
guestion words - which, what, whose Keywords: which, what, whose 
difference words - other, another Keywords: other, another 
distributives- each, every, either, neither Keywords: each, every, 

either, neither 

distributives - menu Keywords: all, both, half, each, every, either, 
neither 

menu - function and class Keywords: determiners, function, class, pre- 
determiners 

Quantifiers 7 - enough Keywords: enough, quantifiers, determiners 
menu - guantifiers Keywords: much, many, a little, a few, some, any 
possessives Keywords: possessive adjectives, possessive pronouns, my, 
mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, our, ours, their, theirs 
demonstratives - this, that, these, those etc Keywords: this, that, 
these, those, determiners 

exceptions to using the definite article Keywords: no definite 
article, determiner, exceptions 

the, a, an Keywords: the, a, an, indefinite article, exceptions 
the definite article Keywords: the, definite article 
guantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions, 
decimals, units, years, zero 

distributives- all, both, half Keywords: all, both, half, distributives, 
determiners 

Quantifiers 6 - something, somebody, someone etc. Keywords: 
something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone, 
anywhere, nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere, 
quantifiers 5 - some and any Keywords: determiners, quantifiers, 
some, any 

quantifiers 1 - determiners.a few, few, a little, little Keywords: 
determiners, a few, few, a little, little 

guantifiers 3 - how, much, many,few, lot etc. Keywords: how, 
much, many, few, lot, number, several, countable, uncountable 
the indefinite article Keywords: the, indefinite article, a, an 
pre-determiners Keywords: such, what, rather, quite 



Direct and Indirect Speech 

reporting hopes and intentions Keywords: hopes, intentions, to- 
infinitive, that-clause 

summary of reporting verbs Keywords: summary, reporting verbs, to- 
infintive, that-clause 

reporting orders, reguests, suggestions Keywords: orders, requests, 
suggestions, should - omission, that-clause 

reporting guestions Keywords: reporting yes/ no questions, reporting 
questions with question words 

changes of time and place reference Keywords: time reference, 
place reference 

tense changes Keywords: reported speech, tense changes 
introduction - reported speech, 'that', say, tell, talk, speak 
Keywords: reported speech, 'that 1 , say, tell, talk, speak 

Passive 

get/ have something done, x needs doing Keywords: get, need 
Relative Clauses 

non-defining relative Clauses Keywords: relative clauses, non- 
defining 
defining relative clauses Keywords: defining relative clauses 



The Full PDF Online English Grammar VI. 1 ©copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony Hughes 



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Your search for items starting with the letter 'E' has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 

Adverbs 

degree - enough, very.too, extremely, almost etc Keywords: 
enough, very, too, extremely, almost, nearly, completely 

Determiners 

distributives- each, every, either, neither Keywords: each, every, 

either, neither 

Quantifiers 7 - enough Keywords: enough, quantifiers, determiners 

exceptions to using the definite article Keywords: no definite 

article, determiner, exceptions 

the, a, an Keywords: the, a, an, indefinite article, exceptions 

To Get 



examples Keywords: get, got, getting 



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Your search for items starting with the letter 'F' has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 



Adjectives 



form - adjectives Keywords: gender, position, form, adjective 
function Keywords: order, adjectives, function 



Adverbs 



function Keywords: adverb, function 
form - adverb Keywords: adverb, form 
comparative form Keywords: comparative, adverbs 



Determiners 



quantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions, 
decimals, units, years, zero 

quantifiers 2 - many, much, more, most etc. Keywords: many, 
much, more, most, little, less, least, few, fewer, fewest 
menu - function and class Keywords: determiners, function, class, pre- 
determiners 

quantifiers 1 - determiners.a few, few, a little, little Keywords: 
determiners, a few, few, a little, little 



-ING Form 



introduction - present participle, gerund Keywords: present 
participle, gerund 



Nouns 



noun gender Keywords: gender, masculine, feminine, noun 



Passive 



form -past Keywords: be +past participle 

function Keywords: unknown agent, subject, by formal/ scientific texts 



The Infinitive 



verbs followed by infinitive Keywords: verbs + infinitive without a 

noun 

form, with or without 'to' Keywords: to-infinitive, zero infinitive 

function Keywords: function, infinitive of purpose, infinitive as subject, 



infinitive after adjectives, infinitive with too/ enough 

other forms of infinitive Keywords: perfect infinitive, continuous 

infinitive, passive infinitive, perfect continuous infinitive 

Verbs and Verb Tenses 

future continuous Keywords: future, actions in progress 

future forms - introduction Keywords: future, attitude 

future with 'going to' Keywords: plans, intentions 

future perfect Keywords: future, completed actions 

future perfect continuous Keywords: unfinished, future time 

Other forms of future Keywords: is to, obligation, about to, immediate 

future 

future forms - simple future Keywords: will/shall, prediction, 

decision, future facts, certainty 



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Your search for items starting with the letter 'G' has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 

Adjectives 

form - adjectives Keywords: gender, position, form, adjective 
-ING Form 

gerund/ infinitive - difference in meaning Keywords: 

gerund/ infinitive, difference in meaning 

gerund or infinitive? Keywords: gerund/ infinitive-, no difference in 

meaning 

verbs followed by gerund Keywords: verb + gerund 

gerunds Keywords: gerund, as subject, after prepositions, after phrasal 

verbs, in compound nouns, can't stand. can't help 

Nouns 



noun gender Keywords: gender, masculine, feminine, noun 



Passive 



get/ have something done, x needs doing Keywords: get, need 



To Get 



examples Keywords: get, got, getting 
get, got, getting Keywords: get, got, getting 



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H 

Your search for items starting with the letter 'H' has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 

Determiners 

distributives- all, both, half Keywords: all, both, half, distributives, 

determiners 

distributives - menu Keywords: all, both, half, each, every, either, 

neither 

Direct and Indirect Speech 

reporting hopes and intentions Keywords: hopes, intentions, to- 
infinitive, that-clause 



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Your search for items starting with the letter 'I' has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 



Adjectives 



irregular comparatives & superlatives Keywords: irregular 
comparatives, superlatives, adjectives 



Adverbs 



interrogative - why, where, how, when Keywords: why, where, 
how, when 

Determiners 

the, a, an Keywords: the, a, an, indefinite article, exceptions 
the indefinite article Keywords: the, indefinite article, a, an 

Direct and Indirect Speech 

summary of reporting verbs Keywords: summary, reporting verbs, to- 
infintive, that-clause 

reporting hopes and intentions Keywords: hopes, intentions, to- 
infinitive, that-clause 

reporting orders, reguests, suggestions Keywords: orders, requests, 
suggestions, should - omission, that-clause 
changes of time and place reference Keywords: time reference, 
place reference 

tense changes Keywords: reported speech, tense changes 
introduction - reported speech, 'that', say, tell, talk, speak 
Keywords: reported speech, 'that 1 , say, tell, talk, speak 

-ING Form 



verbs followed by gerund Keywords: verb + gerund 

introduction - present participle, gerund Keywords: present 

participle, gerund 

gerunds Keywords: gerund, as subject, after prepositions, after phrasal 

verbs, in compound nouns, can't stand. can't help 

gerund or infinitive? Keywords: gerund/ infinitive-, no difference in 

meaning 

gerund/ infinitive - difference in meaning Keywords: 

gerund/ infinitive, difference in meaning 

as present participle Keywords: present participle , with verbs of 

movement with verbs of perception, as adjective with spend, with waste, 

with catch, with find, replacing time clause, replacing reason clause 



Irregular Verbs 



introduction - irregular verbs Keywords: verbs, irregular 
list of common irregular verb Keywords: irregular, verbs 
common irregular verbs - group 1 Keywords: irregular verbs 
common irregular verbs - group 3 Keywords: irregular verbs 
common irregular verbs - group 2 Keywords: irregular verbs 



Relative Clauses 



introduction - defining relative clauses, non-defining relative 
clauses Keywords: defining relative clauses, non-defining relative clauses 

The Infinitive 

negative infinitive Keywords: negative infinitive 

infinitive after guestion words Keywords: infinitive, question words 

function Keywords: function, infinitive of purpose, infinitive as subj ect, 

infinitive after adjectives, infinitive with too/ enough 

other forms of infinitive Keywords: perfect infinitive, continuous 

infinitive, passive infinitive, perfect continuous infinitive 

verbs followed by infinitive Keywords: verbs + infinitive without a 

noun 

verbs followed by noun + i nf initive Keywords: verb +noun + 

infinitive 

verbs + infinitive with/ without noun Keywords: verb with or 

without noun + i nf i nit i ve 

zero infinitive Keywords: zero infinitive 

form, with or without 'to' Keywords: to-infinitive, zero infinitive 

Verbs and Verb Tenses 

if sentences with mixed conditionals Keywords: mixed conditionals 

menu / introduction Keywords: menu, introduction, tenses 

if sentences with if, condtional tenses Keywords: if, condtional 

tenses 

zero conditional Keywords: if +present, general truths, instructions 

type 1 conditional Keywords: if + present + future, fact 

if sentences with if + past, would, present condtional Keywords: 

if +past, would, present condtional 

if setences with present continuous conditional Keywords: 

present continuous conditional 

if sentences with conditional perfect continuous Keywords: 

conditional perfect continuous 

if sentences with if-mot, unless, verbs Keywords: if-mot, unless, 

verbs 

if sentences with wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if only 

Keywords: wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if only 

if sentences with perfect conditional, if +past perfect Keywords: 

perfect conditional, if +past perfect 



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J 



Your search for items starting with the letter 'J ' has not returned any related 
items. You may have better luck with a keyword search using the keyword 
search box. 



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Your search for items starting with the letter 'K' has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 

Adverbs 

menu - kinds of adverbs Keywords: kinds, adverbs 



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Your search for items starting with the letter 'L' has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 

Determiners 

quantifiers 1 - determiners.a few, few, a little, little Keywords: 
determiners, a few, few, a little, little 

quantifiers 2 - many, much, more, most etc. Keywords: many, 
much, more, most, little, less, least, few, fewer, fewest 

Irregular Verbs 

list of common irregular verb Keywords: irregular, verbs 



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M 

Your search for items starting with the letter 'M' has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 

Adjectives 

main menu - adjectives Keywords: adjectives 



Adverbs 



menu - kinds Of adverbs Keywords: kinds, adverbs 
main menu - adverbs Keywords: adverbs 
manner - adverbs Keywords: adverbs, manner 



Determiners 



distributives - menu Keywords: all, both, half, each, every, either, 
neither 

quantifiers 2 - many, much, more, most etc. Keywords: many, 
much, more, most, little, less, least, few, fewer, fewest 
menu - quantifiers Keywords: much, many, a little, a few, some, any 
menu - function and class Keywords: determiners, function, class, pre- 
determiners 



Nouns 

menu - nouns Keywords: nouns 

noun gender Keywords: gender, masculine, feminine, noun 

Verbs and Verb Tenses 

menu / introduction Keywords: menu, introduction, tenses 

if sentences with mixed conditionals Keywords: mixed conditionals 



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N 

Your search for items starting with the letter 'N' has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 

Adjectives 

not as +adj ective + as Keywords: not, as, so, not as, not so, adjective 
Determiners 

quantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions, 

decimals, units, years, zero 

quantifiers 3 - how, much, many,few, lot etc. Keywords: how, 

much, many, few, lot, number, several, countable, uncountable 

distributives- each, every, either, neither Keywords: each, every, 

either, neither 

quantifiers 6 - something, somebody, someone etc. Keywords: 

something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone, 

anywhere, nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere, 



Nouns 



plurals Keywords: singular plural, irregular plural, noun 

countable & uncountable Keywords: countable, uncountable, noun 

compound nouns Keywords: compound nouns, phrasal verbs 

use of capital letters Keywords: capital letters, names, months, days, 

holidays, seasons, geographical, names, streets, buildings, titles of books, 

nouns 

noun gender Keywords: gender, masculine, feminine, noun 

menu - nouns Keywords: nouns 

nationalities Keywords: nationalities, country, nouns 



Relative Clauses 



non-defininq relative Clauses Keywords: relative clauses, non- 
defining 



The Infinitive 



negative infinitive Keywords: negative infinitive 

verbs followed by noun + i nf initive Keywords: verb +noun + 

infinitive 

verbs + infinitive with/ without noun Keywords: verb with or 

without noun + i nf i nit i ve 



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Your search for items starting with the letter '0' has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 



Adjectives 



order of adjectives Keywords: order, adjectives 
function Keywords: order, adjectives, function 

Determiners 

difference words - other, another Keywords: other, another 
quantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions, 
decimals, units, years, zero 

Direct and Indirect Speech 

reporting orders, requests, suggestions Keywords: orders, requests, 
suggestions, should - omission, that-clause 

The Infinitive 

Other forms of infinitive Keywords: perfect infinitive, continuous 
infinitive, passive infinitive, perfect continuous infinitive 

Verbs and Verb Tenses 

other forms of future Keywords: is to, obligation, about to, immediate 
future 



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Your search for items starting with the letter 'P' has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 

Adverbs 

place, adverbs Of place Keywords: adverbs, place 
Determiners 

menu - function and class Keywords: determiners, function, class, pre- 
determiners 

pre-determiners Keywords: such, what, rather, quite 
possessives Keywords: possessive adjectives, possessive pronouns, my, 
mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, our, ours, their, theirs 

-ING Form 

as present participle Keywords: present participle , with verbs of 
movement with verbs of perception, as adjective with spend, with waste, 
with catch, with find, replacing time clause, replacing reason clause 
introduction - present participle, gerund Keywords: present 
participle, gerund 

Nouns 



plurals Keywords: singular plural, irregular plural, noun 

Passive 

form -past Keywords: be +past participle 

function Keywords: unknown agent, subject, by formal/ scientific texts 
get/ have something done, x needs doing Keywords: get, need 
active/ passive eguivalents Keywords: active, passive equivalent 

Possessive with 's and ' 

possessive Keywords: possessive, time expressions, apostrophe, names, 
possessive 

Relative Clauses 



prepositions in relative Clauses Keywords: prepositions, relative 

clauses 

defining relative clauses Keywords: defining relative clauses 



Verbs and Verb Tenses 

past perfect Keywords: past perfect, just 

present perfect 1 Keywords: present perfect, past participle, irregular 

verbs 

present continuous Keywords: -ing, verbs, tenses, present participle, 

verbs not used in continuous form 

present perfect 2 Keywords: present perfect, ever, never, already, yet 

present perfect 3 Keywords: present perfect, simple past, time, 

attitude 

present perfect 4 Keywords: present perfect, for, since 

past continuous Keywords: past continuous, description, narrative 

past perfect continuous Keywords: past perfect continuous, process, 

reported speech 

present continuous for future events Keywords: arrangements, 

future 

if sentences with wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if only 

Keywords: wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if only 

present perfect COntinous Keywords: present perfect continous, 

present participle 



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Your search for items starting with the letter 'Q' has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 



Adjectives 



comparisons of quantity - showing no difference Keywords: 

quantity, comparison, adjective, difference 

comparisons of quantity - showing difference Keywords: quantity, 

comparison, adjective, difference 

comparisons of quantity - menu Keywords: quantity, comparison, 

adjective 

Determiners 

quantifiers 6 - something, somebody, someone etc. Keywords: 

something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone, 

anywhere, nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere, 

guantifiers 5 - some and any Keywords: determiners, quantifiers, 

some, any 

guantifiers 1 - determiners.a few, few, a little, little Keywords: 

determiners, a few, few, a little, little 

guantifiers 3 - how, much, many.few, lot etc. Keywords: how, 

much, many, few, lot, number, several, countable, uncountable 

pre-determiners Keywords: such, what, rather, quite 

guestion words - which, what, whose Keywords: which, what, whose 

guantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions, 

decimals, units, years, zero 

guantifiers 7 - enough Keywords: enough, quantifiers, determiners 

guantifiers 2 - many, much, more, most etc. Keywords: many, 

much, more, most, little, less, least, few, fewer, fewest 

menu - guantifiers Keywords: much, many, a little, a few, some, any 

Direct and Indirect Speech 

reporting guestions Keywords: reporting yes/ no questions, reporting 
questions with question words 

The Infinitive 

infinitive after guestion words Keywords: infinitive, question words 



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Your search for items starting with the letter 'R' has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 

Adverbs 

relative adverbs - Which, What, Whose Keywords: where, when, why 
Determiners 

pre-determiners Keywords: such, what, rather, quite 
Direct and Indirect Speech 

summary of reporting verbs Keywords: summary, reporting verbs, to- 
infintive, that-clause 

reporting hopes and intentions Keywords: hopes, intentions, to- 
infinitive, that-clause 

reporting orders, reguests, suggestions Keywords: orders, requests, 
suggestions, should - omission, that-clause 

reporting guestions Keywords: reporting yes/ no questions, reporting 
questions with question words 

changes of time and place reference Keywords: time reference, 
place reference 

tense changes Keywords: reported speech, tense changes 
introduction - reported speech, 'that', say, tell, talk, speak 
Keywords: reported speech, 'that 1 , say, tell, talk, speak 

Relative Clauses 

non-defining relative Clauses Keywords: relative clauses, non- 
defining 

prepositions in relative clauses Keywords: prepositions, relative 
clauses 

defining relative clauses Keywords: defining relative clauses 
introduction - defining relative clauses, non-defining relative 
clauses Keywords: defining relative clauses, non-defining relative clauses 



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Your search for items starting with the letter 'S' has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 



Adjectives 



the + superlative Keywords: the, superlative, adjectives 
comparatives & superlatives Keywords: comparatives, superlatives, 
adjectives 



Determiners 

quantifiers 6 - something, somebody,someone etc. Keywords: 

something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone, 

anywhere, nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere, 

quantifiers 5 - some and any Keywords: determiners, quantifiers, 

some, any 

pre-determiners Keywords: such, what, rather, quite 

Direct and Indirect Speech 

summary of reporting verbs Keywords: summary, reporting verbs, to- 
infintive, that-clause 

introduction - reported speech, 'that', say, tell, talk, speak 
Keywords: reported speech, 'that 1 , say, tell, talk, speak 

Verbs and Verb Tenses 

Simple present for future events Keywords: future, facts, timetable, 

calendar 

simple past Keywords: simple past, form, function, irregular verbs, 

irregular verbs, auxiliary 'did', ago 

simple present Keywords: verbs, tenses, present simple 

summary Keywords: verb tenses, present tenses, perfect tenses, 

conditional tenses, past tenses, future tenses 



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Your search for items starting with the letter 'T has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 



Adjectives 



the + superlative Keywords: the, superlative, adjectives 
comparative + than Keywords: comparative, than, adjective 



Adverbs 



time, adverbs Of Keywords: adverbs, time 
Determiners 

the indefinite article Keywords: the, indefinite article, a, an 

demonstratives - this, that, these, those etc Keywords: this, that, 

these, those, determiners 

the, a, an Keywords: the, a, an, indefinite article, exceptions 

the definite article Keywords: the, definite article 

Direct and Indirect Speech 

changes of time and place reference Keywords: time reference, 

place reference 

tense changes Keywords: reported speech, tense changes 

The Infinitive 

verbs + infinitive with/ without noun Keywords: verb with or 

without noun + i nf i nit i ve 

infinitive after Question words Keywords: infinitive, question words 

negative infinitive Keywords: negative infinitive 

zero infinitive Keywords: zero infinitive 

other forms of infinitive Keywords: perfect infinitive, continuous 

infinitive, passive infinitive, perfect continuous infinitive 

form, with or without 'to' Keywords: to-infinitive, zero infinitive 

verbs followed by infinitive Keywords: verbs + infinitive without a 

noun 

verbs followed by noun + i nf initive Keywords: verb +noun + 

infinitive 

function Keywords: function, infinitive of purpose, infinitive as subject, 

infinitive after adjectives, infinitive with too/ enough 



To Get 



examples Keywords: get, got, getting 

get, got, getting Keywords: get, got, getting 



Verbs and Verb Tenses 

present perfect continous Keywords: present perfect continous, 

present participle 

simple present Keywords: verbs, tenses, present simple 

future continuous Keywords: future, actions in progress 

present continuous Keywords: -ing, verbs, tenses, present participle, 

verbs not used in continuous form 

present perfect 1 Keywords: present perfect, past participle, irregular 

verbs 

present perfect 2 Keywords: present perfect, ever, never, already, yet 

present perfect 3 Keywords: present perfect, simple past, time, 

attitude 

present perfect 4 Keywords: present perfect, for, since 

summary Keywords: verb tenses, present tenses, perfect tenses, 

conditional tenses, past tenses, future tenses 

simple past Keywords: simple past, form, function, irregular verbs, 

irregular verbs, auxiliary 'did 1 , ago 

past continuous Keywords: past continuous, description, narrative 

past perfect Keywords: past perfect, just 

past perfect continuous Keywords: past perfect continuous, process, 

reported speech 

future forms - introduction Keywords: future, attitude 

future forms - simple future Keywords: will/shall, prediction, 

decision, future facts, certainty 

present continuous for future events Keywords: arrangements, 

future 

future with 'going to' Keywords: plans, intentions 

menu / introduction Keywords: menu, introduction, tenses 

future perfect Keywords: future, completed actions 

future perfect continuous Keywords: unfinished, future time 

Other forms of future Keywords: is to, obligation, about to, immediate 

future 

type 1 conditional Keywords: if + present + future, fact 

simple present for future events Keywords: future, facts, timetable, 

calendar 



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u 

Your search for items starting with the letter 'U' has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 

Determiners 

quantifiers 3 - how, much, many.few, lot etc. Keywords: how, 
much, many, few, lot, number, several, countable, uncountable 
quantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions, 
decimals, units, years, zero 

Nouns 

use of capital letters Keywords: capital letters, names, months, days, 

holidays, seasons, geographical, names, streets, buildings, titles of books, 

nouns 

countable & uncountable Keywords: countable, uncountable, noun 

Verbs and Verb Tenses 

if sentences with wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if only 
Keywords: wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if only 



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SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTER 

V 

Your search for items starting with the letter 'V has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 

Adverbs 

viewpoint, commenting Keywords: adverbs, viewpoint, commenting 
Direct and Indirect Speech 

summary of reporting verbs Keywords: summary, reporting verbs, to- 
infintive, that-clause 

-ING Form 

verbs followed by gerund Keywords: verb + gerund 
Irregular Verbs 

common irregular verbs - group 2 Keywords: irregular verbs 
common irregular verbs - group 1 Keywords: irregular verbs 
list of common irregular verb Keywords: irregular, verbs 
introduction - irregular verbs Keywords: verbs, irregular 
common irregular verbs - group 3 Keywords: irregular verbs 

The Infinitive 

verbs followed by noun + i nf initive Keywords: verb +noun + 

infinitive 

verbs + infinitive with/ without noun Keywords: verb with or 

without noun + i nf i nit i ve 

verbs followed by infinitive Keywords: verbs + infinitive without a 

noun 

Verbs and Verb Tenses 



present continuous Keywords: -ing, verbs, tenses, present participle, 

verbs not used in continuous form 

Simple past Keywords: simple past, form, function, irregular verbs, 

irregular verbs, auxiliary 'did 1 , ago 

future forms - introduction Keywords: future, attitude 

past perfect continuous Keywords: past perfect continuous, process, 

reported speech 

past perfect Keywords: past perfect, just 

future forms - simple future Keywords: will/shall, prediction, 

decision, future facts, certainty 



past continuous Keywords: past continuous, description, narrative 

present perfect continous Keywords: present perfect continous, 

present participle 

present perfect 4 Keywords: present perfect, for, since 

present perfect 3 Keywords: present perfect, simple past, time, 

attitude 

present continuous for future events Keywords: arrangements, 

future 

present perfect 1 Keywords: present perfect, past participle, irregular 

verbs 

if sentences with if, condtional tenses Keywords: if, condtional 

tenses 

simple present Keywords: verbs, tenses, present simple 

summary Keywords: verb tenses, present tenses, perfect tenses, 

conditional tenses, past tenses, future tenses 

present perfect 2 Keywords: present perfect, ever, never, already, yet 

if sentences with if + past, would, present condtional Keywords: 

if +past, would, present condtional 

menu / introduction Keywords: menu, introduction, tenses 

if sentences with wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if only 

Keywords: wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if only 

if sentences with if-mot, unless, verbs Keywords: if-mot, unless, 

verbs 

if sentences with mixed conditionals Keywords: mixed conditionals 

if sentences with conditional perfect continuous Keywords: 

conditional perfect continuous 

future perfect continuous Keywords: unfinished, future time 

if setences with present continuous conditional Keywords: 

present continuous conditional 

simple present for future events Keywords: future, facts, timetable, 

calendar 

type 1 conditional Keywords: if + present + future, fact 

zero conditional Keywords: if +present, general truths, instructions 

Other forms of future Keywords: is to, obligation, about to, immediate 

future 

future perfect Keywords: future, completed actions 

future continuous Keywords: future, actions in progress 

future with 'going to' Keywords: plans, intentions 

if sentences with perfect conditional, if +past perfect Keywords: 

perfect conditional, if +past perfect 



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W 

Your search for items starting with the letter 'VI' has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 

Adverbs 

relative adverbs - Which, What, Whose Keywords: where, when, why 
interrogative - why, where, how, when Keywords: why, where, 
how, when 

Determiners 

pre-determiners Keywords: such, what, rather, quite 

defining words - which, whose Keywords: which, whose 

Question words - Which, What, Whose Keywords: which, what, whose 

The Infinitive 

verbs + infinitive with/ without noun Keywords: verb with or 

without noun + i nf i nit i ve 

form, with or without 'to' Keywords: to-infinitive, zero infinitive 



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Your search for items starting with the letter 'X' has not returned any 
related items. You may have better luck with a keyword search using the 
keyword search box. 



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Your search for items starting with the letter 'Y' has not returned any 
related items. You may have better luck with a keyword search using the 
keyword search box. 



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SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTER 



Your search for items starting with the letter 'Z' has returned the following 

list. 

The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list of 

keywords. 

Determiners 

quantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions, 
decimals, units, years, zero 

The Infinitive 

zero infinitive Keywords: zero infinitive 

form, with or without 'to' Keywords: to-infinitive, zero infinitive 

Verbs and Verb Tenses 

zero conditional Keywords: if +present, general truths, instructions 



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THE QUANTIFIERS 

NUMBERS 

The cardinal numbers (one, two, three, etc.) are adjectives referring to 
quantity, and the ordinal numbers (first, second, third, etc.) refer to 
distribution. 



Number 


Ordinal 


Cardinal 


l 


one 


first 


2 


two 


second 


3 


three 


third 


4 


four 


fourth 


5 


five 


fifth 


6 


six 


sixth 


7 


seven 


seventh 


8 


eight 


eighth 


9 


nine 


ninth 


10 


ten 


tenth 


11 


eleven 


eleventh 


12 


twelve 


twelfth 


13 


thirteen 


thirteenth 


14 


fourteen 


fourteenth 


15 


fifteen 


fifteenth 


16 


sixteen 


sixteenth 


17 


seventeen 


seventeenth 


18 


eighteen 


eighteenth 


19 


nineteen 


nineteenth 


20 


twenty 


twentieth 


21 


twenty-one 


twenty-first 


22 


twenty-two 


twenty-second 


23 


twenty-three 


twenty-third 


24 


twenty-four 


twenty-fourth 


25 


twenty-five 


twenty-fifth 


26 


twenty-six 


twenty-sixth 


27 


twenty-seven 


twenty-seventh 


28 


twenty-eight 


twenty-eighth 


29 


twenty-nine 


twenty-ninth 


30 


thirty 


thirtieth 


31 


thirty-one 


thirty-first 


40 


forty 


fortieth 


50 


fifty 


fiftieth 


60 


sixty 


sixtieth 


70 


seventy 


seventieth 


80 


eighty 


eightieth 


90 


ninety 


ninetieth 


100 


one hundred 


hundredth 


500 


five hundred 


five hundredth 


1,000 


one thousand 


thousandth 


100,000 


one hundred thousand 


hundred thousandth 


1,000,000 


one million 


millionth 



Examples: 

• There are twenty-five people in the room. 

• He was the fourteenth person to win the award since 1934. 
. Six hundred thousand people were left homeless after the 

earthquake. 
. I must have asked you twenty times to be quiet. 

• He went to Israel for the third time this year. 

Fractions and decimals 



Said 


Written 


Said 


half 

a quarter 

three quarters 


0.5 

0.25 

0.75 


point five 
point two five 
point seven five 


Percentages 


Written 


Said 





25% 
50% 
75% 
100% 



twenty five percent 
fifty percent 
seventy five percent 
a/ one hundred percent 



Units 



Written 


Said 


$1,200 


one thousand two hundred 
dollars 


£16,486 


sixteen thousand four hundred 
and eighty-six pounds 


545kms 


five hundred and forty-five 
kilometres 


$25.35 


twenty-five dollars thirty-five 



Years 



Written 



1988 
1864 
1999 



Nineteen eighty-eight 
Eighteen sixty-four 
Nineteen ninety-nine 



How to say '0' 



used in mathematical expressions and 

decimals: 

'nought times three equals nought' 

0.3 = 'nought point three' (or 'point three'! 

0.03 = 'point nought three' 



nought 



zero 


used in scientific expressions, especially 
temperatures: 

20°C =minus twenty degrees or 
twenty degrees below zero 

also used to mean 'the lowest point': 

'The heavy rain reduced visibility to zero' 


'o' (the letter) 


used in telephone numbers: 

0171 390 0062 ='o one seven one three 
nine o double o six two' 


nil/ nothing 


used to express the score in games such 

as football: 

2 - ='two nil' or 'two nothing' 



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DETERMINERS 

FUNCTION AND CLASSES OF DETERMINERS 

Function 

Determiners are words placed in front of a noun to make it clear what the 
noun refers to. The word 'people' by itself is a general reference to some 
group of human beings. If someone says these people', we know which group 
they are talking about, and if they say 'a lot of people' we know how big the 
group is. 

Classes of Determiners 

There are several classes of determiners: 

Definite and Indefinite articles 
the, a, an 

Demonstratives 

this, that, these, those 

Possessives 

my, your, his, her, its, our, their 

Quantifiers 

a few, a little, much, many, a lot of, most, some, any, enough, etc. 

Numbers 

one, ten, thirty, etc. 

Distributives 

all, both, half, either, neither, each, every 

Difference words 
other, another 

Question words 
Which, what, whose 

Defining words 
which, whose 

The following words are pre-determiners . They go before determiners, such 
as articles: such and what, half, rather, quite 



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DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE ARTICLES 

THE, A, AN 

Definite article: THE 

Indefinite article: A/ AN 

Exceptions to using the definite article 



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DEFINITE ARTICLE 



THE 



Articles in English are invariable. That is, they do not change according to 
the gender or number of the noun they refer to, e.g. the boy, the woman, 
the children 

The' is used: 

1. to refer to something which has already been mentioned. 

Example: An elephant and a mouse fell in love. 
The mouse loved the elephant's long trunk, 
and the elephant loved the mouse's tiny nose. 

2. when both the speaker and listener know what is being talked about, even 
if it has not been mentioned before. 

Example: 'Where's the bathroom?' 
'It's on the first floor.' 



3. in sentences or clauses where we define or identify a particular person or 
object: 

Examples: The man who wrote this book is famous. 
'Which car did you scratch?' The red one. 
My house is the one with a blue door.' 

4. to refer to objects we regard as unique: 

Examples: the sun, the moon, the world 

5. before superlatives and ordinal numbers: ( see Adjectives ) 

Examples: the highest building, the first page, the last 
chapter. 

6. with adjectives, to refer to a whole group of people: 

Examples: the J apanese (see Nouns - Nationalities ), the old 

7. with names of geographical areas and oceans: 

Examples: the Caribbean, the Sahara, the Atlantic 

8. with decades, or groups of years: 

Example: she grew up in the seventies 



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COMPARISON OF ADJ ECTIVES 

THE + SUPERLATIVE 

'the' is placed before the superlative: 

For example: He is the richest man in the world. 

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COMPARISON OF ADJ ECTIVES 



IRREGULAR COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES 



These adjectives have completely irregular comparative and superlative 
forms: 



Adjective 


Comparative 


Superlative 


good 


better 


best 


bad 


worse 


worst 


little 


less 


least 


much 


more 


most 


far 


further / farther 


furthest / farthest 



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COMPARISON OF ADJ ECTIVES 



FORMING THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE 



Number of syllables 


(Comparative Isuperlative 


one syllable 


+ -er + -est 


tall 


taller tallest 


one syllable with the spell 
final consonant: 


ng consonant + single vowel + consonant: double the 


fat 


fatter fattest 


big 


bigger biggest 


sad 


sadder saddest 




Number of syllables Comparative 



+ -er OR more + adj 



Superlative 



+ -est OR most + adj 



two syllables 

ending in: -y, -ly, -ow 

ending in: -le, -er or -ure 

these common adjectives - handsome, polite, pleasant, common, quiet 



happy 


happier/ more happy 


happiest/ most happy 


yellow 


yellower/ more yellow 


yellowest/ most yellow 


simple 


simpler/ more simple 


simplest/ most simple 


tender 


tenderer/ more tender 


tenderest/ most tender 



If you are not sure, use MORE + OR MOST + 

Note: Adjectives ending in '-y' like happy, pretty, busy, sunny, lucky etc: 
the -y with -ier or -iest in the comparative and superlative form 



replace 



busy 


busier 


busiest 




Number of syllables 


Comparative 


Superlative 


three syllables or more 


more + adj 


most + adj 


important 


more important 


most important 


expensive 


more expensive 


most expensive 



Examples: 



a. A cat is fast, a tiger is faster but a cheetah is the fastest 

b. A car is heavy, a truck is heavier, but a train is the heaviest 

c. A park bench is comfortable, a restaurant chair is more comfortable, but a sofa 
is the most comfortable 



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FORM AND FUNCTION OF ADJ ECTIVES 

ORDER 

Where a number of adjectives are used together, the order depends on the 
function of the adjective. The usual order is: 

Value/ opinion, Size, Age/ Temperature, Shape, Colour, Origin, Material 



Value/opinion 


delicious, lovely, charming 


Size 


small, huge, tiny 


Age/Temperature 


old, hot, young 


Shape 


round, square, rectangular 


Colour 


red, blonde, black 


Origin 


Swedish, Victorian, Chinese 


Material 


plastic, wooden, silver 



Examples: 



a lovely old red post-box 
some small round plastic tables 
some charming small silver ornaments 



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FORM AND FUNCTION OF ADJ ECTIVES 

FUNCTION 

Adj ectives tell us more about a noun. They can: 

Describe feelings or qualities: 

He is a lonely man 
They are honest people 

Give nationality or origin: 

Pierre is French 
This clock is German 
Our house is Victorian 

Tell more about a thing's characteristics: 

A wooden table. 
The knife is sharp. 

Tell us about age: 

He's a young man 
My coat is very old 

Tell us about size and measurement: 

J ohn is a tall man. 
This is a very long film. 

Tell us about colour: 



Paul wore a red shirt. 

The sunset was crimson and gold. 

Tell us about material/what something is made of: 

It was a wooden table 
She wore a cotton dress 

Tell us about shape: 

A rectangular box 

A square envelope 

Express a judgement or a value: 

A fantastic film 



Grammar is boring. 



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FORM AND FUNCTION OF ADJ ECTIVES 

FORM 

1. Adjectives are invariable: 

They do not change their form depending on the gender or number of the 

noun. 



A hot potato 



Some hot potatoes 



2. To emphasise or strengthen the meaning of an adjective use 'very' or 
'really': 



A very hot potato 



Some really hot potatoes. 



(BUT see also Modifiers/ Adverbs ) 



3. Position of adjectives: 

a) Usually in front of a noun: A beautiful 
girl. 

b) After verbs like "to be", "to seem" , "to 
look", "to taste": 

• The girl is beautiful 

• You look tired 

• This meat tastes funny. 

c) After the noun: in some fixed 
expressions: 

• The Princess Royal 

• The President elect 

• a court martial 




the adjectives involved, present, concerned: 

1. I want to see the people involved/concerned ( = the people who 
have something to do with the matter) 

2. Here is a list of the people present ( = the people who were in the 
building or at the meeting) 

Be careful! When these adjectives are used before the noun they have a 
different meaning: 

• An involved discussion =detailed, complex 

• A concerned father = worried, anxious 

• The present situation =current, happening now 



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ADVERBS- FUNCTION 



Adverbs modify, or tell us more about other words, usually verbs: 

• The bus moved slowly. 

• The bears ate greedily. 

Sometimes they tell us more about adjectives: 

. You look absolutely fabulous! 
They can also modify other adverbs: 

• She played the violin extremely well. 
. You're speaking too quietly. 



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ADVERBS - MENU 



. Function 

. Form 

. Comparative forms 

. Kinds of adverbs 



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ADVERBS - FORM 

1. In most cases, an adverb is formed by adding '-ly' to an 
adjective: 



Adjective 



cheap 
quick 
slow 



Adverb 



cheaply 
quickly 
slowly 



Examples: 

. Time goes quickly. 

• He walked slowly to the door. 

• She certainly had an interesting life. 

. He carefully picked up the sleeping child. 

If the adjective ends in '-y', replace the 'y' with 'i' and add '-ly': 



Adjective 



easy 
angry 
happy 
lucky 



Adverb 



easily 
angrily 
happily 
luckily 



If the adjective ends in -'able', '-ible', or '-le', replace the '-e' with '-y': 



Adjective 



probable 

terrible 

gentle 



Adverb 



probably 

terribly 

gently 



If the adjective ends in '-ic', add '-ally': 



Adjective 



basic 

economic 

tragic 



Adverb 



basically 

economically 

tragically 



Note: Exception: public - publicly 

2. Some adverbs have the same form as the adjective: 




Compare: 

. It is a fast car. 

• He drives very fast. 

• This is a hard exercise. 

• He works hard. 

• We saw many high buildings. 

• The bird flew high in the sky. 

3. 'Well' and 'good' 

'Well' is the adverb that corresponds to the adjective 'good'. 

Examples: 

• He is a good student. 
. He studies well. 

• She is a good pianist. 

• She plays the piano well. 

• They are good swimmers. 

• They swim well. 



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COMPARATIVE FORMS OF ADVERBS 

In general, comparative and superlative forms of adverbs are the same as for 
adjectives: 

. add -er or -est to short adverbs: 



Adverb 



Comparative 



Superlative 



hard 
late 
fast 



harder 

later 

faster 



the hardest 
the latest 
the fastest 



Example: 

• J im works harder than his brother. 

• Everyone in the race ran fast, but J ohn ran the fastest of all. 

with adverbs ending in -ly, use more for the comparative and most for the 
superlative: 



Adverb 



quietly 

slowly 

seriously 



Comparative 



more quietly 
more slowly 
more seriously 



Superlative 



most quietly 
most slowly 
most seriously 



Example: 

• The teacher spoke more slowly to help us to understand. 
. Could you sing more quietly please? 

Some adverbs have irregular comparative forms: 



Adverb 


Comparative 


Superlative 


badly 


worse 


worst 


far 


farther/further 


farthest/furthest 


little 


less 


least 


well 


better 


best 



Example: 



The little boy ran further than his friends. 
You're driving worse today than yesterday ! 



BE CAREFUL! Sometimes 'most' can mean 'very': 
. We were most grateful for your help 



I am most impressed by this application. 

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KINDS OF ADVERBS 



There are several classes or 'kinds' of adverbs that we use for specific 
functions: 

1. Adverbs of manner 

2. Adverbs of place 

3. Adverbs of time 

4. Adverbs of certainty 

5. Adverbs of degree 

6. Interrogative adverbs 

7. Relative adverbs 

8. Viewpoint and commenting adverbs 



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KINDS OF ADVERBS 



ADVERBS OF MANNER 

Adverbs of manner tell us how something happens. They are usually placed 
after the main verb or after the object. 

Examples: 

• He swims well, (after the main verb) 

• Me ran... rapidly, slowly, quickly.. 

• She spoke... softly, loudly, aggressively.. 

• J ames coughed loudly to attract her attention. 

• He plays the flute beautifully, (after the object) 
. He ate the chocolate cake greedily. 

BE CAREFUL! The adverb should not be put between the verb and the 
object: 

. He ate greedily the chocolate cake [incorrect] 
. He ate the chocolate cake greedily [correct] 

If there is a preposition before the object, e.g. at, towards, we can place 
the adverb either before the preposition or after the object. 

Example: 

• The child ran happily towards his mother. 

• The child ran towards his mother happily. 

Sometimes an adverb of manner is placed before a verb + object to add 
emphasis: 

• He gently woke the sleeping woman. 

Some writers put an adverb of manner at the beginning of the sentence to 
catch our attention and make us curious: 

• Slowly she picked up the knife. 

(We want to know what happened slowly, who did it slowly, why they did it 
slowly) 

However, adverbs should always come AFTER intransitive verbs (=verbs 
which have no object). 

Example: 



The town grew quickly 
He waited patiently 



Also, these common adverbs are almost always placed AFTER the verb: 

. well 

• badly 

• hard 

• fast 

The position of the adverb is important when there is more than one verb in 
a sentence. If the adverb is placed after a clause, then it modifies the whole 
action described by the clause. 

Notice the difference in meaning between the following pairs of sentences: 

• She quickly agreed to re-type the letter ( = her agreement was quick) 
. She agreed to re-type the letter quickly ( = the re-typing was quick) 

• He quietly asked me to leave the house (= his request was quiet) 

• He asked me to leave the house quietly (=the leaving was quiet) 



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KINDS OF ADVERBS 

ADVERBS OF PLACE 

Adverbs of place tell us where something happens. 

They are usually placed after the main verb or after the object: 

Example: 

after the main verb: 

. I looked everywhere 

• J ohn looked away, up, down, around. . . 
. I'm going home, out, back 

. Come in 

after the object: 

• They built a house nearby 

• She took the child outside 

'Here' and 'there' 



With verbs of movement, here means towards or with the speaker: 

. Come here (=towards me) 

• It's in here ( = come with me to see it) 

There means away from, or not with the speaker: 

• Put it there ( = away from me) 

. It's in there ( = go by yourself to see it) 

Here and there are combined with prepositions to make many common 
adverbial phrases: 

down here, down there; 
over here, over there; 
under here, under there; 
up here, up there 

Here and there are placed at the beginning of the sentence in exclamations 
or when emphasis is needed. 

They are followed by the verb if the subject is a noun: 

. Here comes the bus. (followed by the verb) 

Or by a pronoun if this is the subject (it, she, he etc.): 



. Here it is! (followed by the pronoun) 

. There she goes! (followed by the pronoun) 

NOTE: most common adverbs of place also function as prepositions. 

Examples: 

about, across, along, around, behind, by, down, in, off, on, over, round, 
through, under, up. 

Go to Prepositions or Phrasal Verbs 

Other adverbs of place: ending in '-wards', expressing movement in a 
particular direction: 

backwards northwards 

forwards southwards 

downwards eastwards 

upwards westwards 

inwards homewards 

outwards onwards 



Example: 

• Cats don't usually walk backwards. 

• The ship sailed westwards. 

BE CAREFUL! Towards' is a preposition, not an adverb, so it is always 
followed by a noun or a pronoun: 

. Me walked towards the car. 

• She ran towards me. 

expressing both movement and location: 

ahead, abroad, overseas, uphill, downhill, sideways, indoors, outdoors 

Example: 

• The child went indoors. 

• He lived and worked abroad. 



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KINDS OF ADVERBS 



ADVERBS OF TIME 

Adverbs of time tell us when an action happened, but also for how long, and 
how often. 

Examples: 

. When: today, yesterday, later, now, last year 

• For how long: all day, not long, for a while, since last year 
. How often: sometimes, frequently, never, often, yearly 

"When" adverbs are usually placed at the end of the sentence: 

• Goldilocks went to the Bears' house yesterday. 
. I'm going to tidy my room tomorrow. 

This is a "neutral" position, but some "when" adverbs can be put in other 
positions to give a different emphasis 

Compare: 

. Later Goldilocks ate some porridge, (the time is more important) 

• Goldilocks later ate some porridge, (this is more formal, like a 
policeman's report) 

• Goldilocks ate some porridge later, (this is neutral, no particular 
emphasis) 

"For how long" adverbs are usually placed at the end of the sentence: 

• She stayed in the Bears' house all day. 
. My mother lived in France for a year. 

Notice: 'for' is always followed by an expression of duration: 

. for three days, 

• for a week, 

• for several years, 

• for two centuries. 

'since' is always followed by an expression of a point in time: 

. since Monday, 

• since 1997, 

• since the last war. 



"How often" adverbs expressing the frequency of an action are usually 
placed before the main verb but after auxiliary verbs (such as be, have, may, 
must): 



• I often eat vegetarian food, (before the main verb) 

• He never drinks milk, (before the main verb) 

. You must always fasten your seat belt, (after the auxiliary must) 
. She is never sea-sick. (after the auxiliary is) 

• I have never forgotten my first kiss, (after the auxiliary have and 
before the main verb forgotten) 

Some other "how often" adverbs express the exact number of times an 

action happens and are usually placed at the end of the sentence: 

• This magazine is published monthly. 
. He visits his mother once a week. 

When a frequency adverb is placed at the end of a sentence it is much 
stronger. 

Compare: 

• She regularly visits France. 

• She visits France regularly. 

Adverbs that can be used in these two positions: 

• frequently, 

• generally, 

• normally, 

• occasionally, 

• often, 

• regularly, 

. sometimes, 

• usually 

'Yet' and 'still' 



Yet is used in questions and in negative sentences, and is placed at the end 
of the sentence or after not. 

. Have you finished your work yet? ( = a simple request for information) 

No, not yet. (=simple negative answer) 
. They haven't met him yet. (=simple negative statement) 

• Haven't you finished yet? ( = expressing slight surprise) 

Still expresses continuity; it is used in positive sentences and questions, and 
is placed before the main verb and after auxiliary verbs (such as be, have, 
might, will) 

• I am still hungry. 

• She is still waiting for you 

• Are you still here? 

• Do you still work for the BBC? 

ORDER OF ADVERBS OF TIME 

If you need to use more than one adverb of time at the end of a sentence, 
use them in this order: 



'how long' 

'how often' 

'when' (think of 'low') 



Example: 



1+2:1 work (1) for five hours (2) every day 

2 +3 : The magazine was published (2) weekly (3) last year. 

1+3:1 was abroad (1) for two months (3) last year. 

1 +2 +3 : She worked in a hospital (1) for two days (2) every week 

(3) last year. 



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KINDS OF ADVERBS 

ADVERBS OF CERTAINTY 

These adverbs express how certain or sure we feel about an action or event. 

Common adverbs of certainty: 

certainly, definitely, probably, undoubtedly, surely 

Adverbs of certainty go before the main verb but after the verb 'to be': 

• He definitely left the house this morning. 

• He is probably in the park. 

With other auxiliary verb, these adverbs go between the auxiliary and the 
main verb: 

• He has certainly forgotten the meeting. 
. He will probably remember tomorrow. 

Sometimes these adverbs can be placed at the beginning of the sentence: 

• Undoubtedly, Winston Churchill was a great politician. 

BE CAREFUL! with surely. When it is placed at the beginning of the sentence, 
it means the speaker thinks something is true, but is looking for 
confirmation: 

Example: 

• Surely you've got a bicycle? 
See also ADVERBS OF ATTITUDE 



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KINDS OF ADVERBS 

VIEWPOINT AND COMMENTING ADVERBS 

There are some adverbs and adverbial expressions which tell us about the 
speaker's viewpoint or opinion about an action, or make some comment on 
the action. 

Viewpoint 

Frankly, I think he is a liar. ( = this is my frank, honest opinion) 
Theoretically, you should pay a fine. ( = from a theoretical point of view but 
there may be another way of looking at the situation) 

These adverbs are placed at the beginning of the sentence and are 
separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma. 

Some common Viewpoint adverbs: 

honestly, seriously, confidentially, personally, surprisingly, ideally, 
economically, officially, obviously, clearly, surely, undoubtedly. 

Examples: 

. Personally, I'd rather go by train. 

• Surprisingly, this car is cheaper than the smaller model. 

• Geographically, Britain is rather cut off from the rest of Europe. 

Commenting 

• She is certainly the best person for the j ob. 

• You obviously enjoyed your meal. 

These are very similar to viewpoint adverbs, and often the same words, but 
they go in a different position - after the verb to be and before the main 
verb. 

Some common Commenting adverbs: 

definitely, certainly, obviously, simply. 

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KINDS OF ADVERBS 



ADVERBS OF DEGREE 

Adverbs of degree tell us about the intensity or degree of an action, an 
adjective or another adverb. 

Common adverbs of degree: 

Almost, nearly, quite, just, too, enough, hardly, scarcely, completely, 
very, extremely. 

Adverbs of degree are usually placed: 

1. before the adjective or adverb they are modifying: 
e.g. The water was extremely cold. 

2. before the main verb: 

e.g. He was just leaving. She has almost finished. 

Examples: 

. She doesn't quite know what she'll do after university. 

• They are completely exhausted from the trip. 
. I am too tired to go out tonight. 

. He hardly noticed what she was saying. 

Enough, very, too 

Enough as an adverb meaning 'to the necessary degree' goes after adjectives 
and adverbs. 

Example: 

• Is your coffee hot enough? (adjective) 
. He didn't work hard enough, (adverb) 

It also goes before nouns, and means 'as much as is necessary'. In this case it 
is not an adverb, but a 'determiner'. 

Example: 

• We have enough bread. 

• They don't have enough food. 

Too as an adverb meaning 'more than is necessary or useful' goes before 
adjectives and adverbs, e.g. 

. This coffee is too hot. (adjective) 

• He works too hard, (adverb) 



Enough and too with adjectives can be followed by 'for someone/ something'. 



Example: 

. The dress was big enough for me. 

. She's not experienced enough for this job. 

• The coffee was too hot for me. 

• The dress was too small for her. 

We can also use 'to + i nf i niti ve" after enough and too with 
adjectives/ adverb. 

Example: 

• The coffee was too hot to drink. 

• He didn't work hard enough to pass the exam. 

• She's not old enough to get married. 

• You're too young to have grandchildren! 

Very goes before an adverb or adjective to make it stronger. 
Example: 

• The girl was very beautiful, (adjective) 
. He worked very quickly, (adverb) 

If we want to make a negative form of an adjective or adverb, we can use a 
word of opposite meaning, or not very. 

Example: 

• The girl was ugly OR The girl was not very beautiful 
. He worked slowly OR He didn't work very quickly. 

BE CAREFUL! There is a big difference between too and very. 

• Very expresses a fact: 
He speaks very quickly. 

. Too suggests there is a problem: 

He speaks too quickly (for me to understand). 

Other adverbs like very 

These common adverbs are used like very and not very, and are listed in 
order of strength, from positive to negative: 

extremely, especially, particularly, pretty, rather, quite, fairly, rather, 
not especially, not particularly. 

Note: rather can be positive or negative, depending on the adjective or 
adverb that follows: 

Positive: The teacher was rather nice. 
Negative: The film was rather disappointing. 

Note on inversion with negative adverbs: 

Normally the subject goes before the verb: 



SUBj ECT 



I 



She 



left 
goes 



However, some negative adverbs can cause an inversion - the order is 
reversed and the verb goes before the subject 

Example: 

I have never seen such courage. Never have I seen such courage. 

She rarely left the house. Rarely did she leave the house. 

Negative inversion is used in writing, not in speaking. 

Other adverbs and adverbial expressions that can be used like this: 

seldom, scarcely, hardly, not only 

but also, no sooner 

than, not until, under no circumstances. 



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KINDS OF ADVERBS 

INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS 

These are: 

why, where, how, when 

They are usually placed at the beginning of a question. 

Examples: 

. Why are you so late? 

. Where is my passport? 

. How are you? 

• How much is that coat? 

• When does the train arrive? 

Notice that how can be used in four different ways: 

1. meaning 'in what way?': 

How did you make this sauce? 
How do you start the car? 

2. with adjectives: 

How tall are you? 
How old is your house? 

3. with much and many: 

How much are these tomatoes? 

How many people are coming to the party? 

4. with other adverbs: 

How quickly can you read this? 
How often do you go to London? 



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KINDS OF ADVERBS 



RELATIVE ADVERBS 

The following adverbs can be used to join sentences or clauses. They replace 
the more formal structure of preposition +which in a relative clause: 

where, when, why 

Examples: 

• That's the restaurant where we met for the first time, 
(where =at/ in which) 

. I remember the day when we first met. 
(when =on which) 

• There was a very hot summer the year when he was born, 
(when =in which) 

• Tell me (the reason) why you were late home. 

(why =for which, but could replace the whole phrase 'the reason for 
which') 



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ADj ECTIVES 



Section Menu 



FORM AND FUNCTION OF ADj ECTIVES 



■ Form 



■ Function 

■ Order 



COMPARISON OF ADj ECTIVES 



Forming the Comparative and Superlative 

Irregular Comparatives and Superlatives 

the +Superlative 

The Comparative +than 

As + adjective +as 

Not as + adjective +as 

Comparisons of Quantity 



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COMPARISON OF ADJ ECTIVES 



COMPARATIVE + THAN 



To compare the difference between two people, things or events. 



Examples: 



Mt. Everest is higher than Mt. Blanc. 
Thailand is sunnier than Norway. 
A car is more expensive than a bicycle. 
Albert is more intelligent than Arthur. 



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COMPARISON OF ADJ ECTIVES 

AS + ADJ ECTIVE + AS 

To compare people, places, events or things, when there is no difference, 
use as + adjective +as: 

• Peter is 24 years old. J ohn is 24 years old. Peter is as old as J ohn. 
More examples: 

• Moscow is as cold as St. Petersburg in the winter. 

• Ramona is as happy as Raphael. 
. Einstein is as famous as Darwin. 
. A tiger is as dangerous as a lion. 



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COMPARISON OF ADJ ECTIVES 

NOT AS + ADJ ECTIVE + AS 

Difference can also be shown by using not so/as ...as: 

• Mont Blanc is not as high as Mount Everest 

• Norway is not as sunny as Thailand 

• A bicycle is not as expensive as a car 

• Arthur is not as intelligent as Albert 

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COMPARISON OF ADJ ECTIVES 

COMPARISONS OF QUANTITY 

To show difference : more, less, fewer + than 

To show no difference : as much as , as many as, as few as, as little as 



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COMPARISON OF ADJ ECTIVES 

COMPARISONS OF QUANTITY 

To show difference: more, less, fewer + than 

Examples: 

With countable nouns: more / fewer 

• Eloise has more children than Chantal. 

• Chantal has fewer children than Eloise. 

• There are fewer dogs in Cardiff than in Bristol 

• I have visited fewer countries than my friend has. 

• He has read fewer books than she has. 

With uncountable nouns: more / less 

. Eloise has more money than Chantal. 

. Chantal has less money than Eloise. 

• I spend less time on homework than you do. 

• Cats drink less water than dogs. 

• This new dictionary gives more information than the old one. 

So, the rule is: 

MORE + nouns that are countable or uncountable 
FEWER + countable nouns 
LESS + uncountable nouns 

To show no difference see next page. 

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COMPARISON OF ADJ ECTIVES 

COMPARISONS OF QUANTITY 

To show no difference: as much as , as many as, as few as, as little as 

• as many as/ as few as + countable nouns 

• as much as/ as little as + uncountable nouns 

Examples: 

With countable nouns: 

• They have as many children as us. 

• We have as many customers as them. 

• Tom has as few books as J ane. 

• There are as few houses in his village as in mine. 

• You know as many people as I do. 

• I have visited the States as many times as he has. 

With uncountable nouns: 

• J ohn eats as much food as Peter. 

• J im has as little food as Sam. 

• You've heard as much news as I have. 

. He's had as much success as his brother has. 

• They've got as little water as we have. 



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NOUNS 



NATIONALITIES 



a. Country: I live in England. 

b. Adjective: He reads English literature. 

c. Noun: She is an Englishwoman. 



COUNTRY 


ADj ECTIVE 


NOUN 


Africa 


African 


an African 


America 


American 


an American 


Argentina 


Argentinian 


an Argentinian 


Austria 


Austrian 


an Austrian 


Autralia 


Australian 


an Australian 


Bangladesh 


Bangladesh(i) 


a Bangladeshi 


Belgium 


Belgian 


a Belgian 


Brazil 


Brazilian 


a Brazilian 


Britain 


British 


a Briton/ Britisher 


Cambodia 


Cambodian 


a Cambodian 


Chile 


Chilean 


a Chilean 


China 


Chinese 


a Chinese 


Colombia 


Colombian 


a Colombian 


Croatia 


Croatian 


a Croat 


the Czech Republic 


Czech 


a Czech 


Denmark 


Danish 


a Dane 


England 


English 


an 

Englishman/ Englishwoman 


Finland 


Finnish 


a Finn 


France 


French 


a Frenchman/ Frenchwoman 


Germany 


German 


a German 


Greece 


Greek 


a Greek 


Holland 


Dutch 


a Dutchman/ Dutchwoman 


Hungary 


Hungarian 


a Hungarian 


Iceland 


Icelandic 


an Icelander 


India 


Indian 


an Indian 


Indonesia 


Indonesian 


an Indonesian 


Iran 


Iranian 


an Iranian 


Iraq 


Iraqi 


an Iraqi 


Ireland 


Irish 


an Irishman/ Irishwoman 


Israel 


Israeli 


an Israeli 


J amaica 


J amaican 


a J amaican 



J apan 


J apanese 


a J apanese 


Mexico 


Mexican 


a Mexican 


Morocco 


Moroccan 


a Moroccan 


Norway 


Norwegian 


a Norwegian 


Peru 


Peruvian 


a Peruvian 


the Philippines 


Philippine 


a Filipino 


Poland 


Polish 


a Pole 


Portugal 


Portuguese 


a Portuguese 


Rumania 


Rumanian 


a Rumanian 


Russia 


Russian 


a Russian 


Saudi Arabia 


Saudi, Saudi Arabian 


a Saudi, a Saudi Arabian 


Scotland 


Scottish 


a Scot 


Serbia 


Serbian 


a Serb 


the Slovak Republic 


Slovak 


a Slovak 


Sweden 


Swedish 


a Swede 


Switzerland 


Swiss 


a Swiss 


Thailand 


Thai 


a Thai 


The USA 


American 


an American 


Tunisia 


Tunisian 


a Tunisian 


Turkey 


Turkish 


a Turk 


Vietnam 


Vietnamese 


a Vietnamese 


Wales 


Welsh 


a Welshman/ Welshwoman 


Yugoslavia 


Yugoslav 


a Yugoslav 



Note: We use the + nationality adjective ending in -ese or -ish with a 
plural verb, to refer to all people of that nationality: 

The Chinese are very hard-working. 

The Spanish often go to sleep in the afternoon. 



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INDEFINITE ARTICLE 



A/ AN 

Use 'a' with nouns starting with a consonant (letters that are not vowels), 
'an' with nouns starting with a vowel (a,e,i,o,u) 

Examples: 

A boy 
An apple 
A car 
An orange 
A house 
An opera 

NOTE: 

An before an h mute - an hour, an honour. 

A before u and eu when they sound like 'you': a european, a university, a 

unit 

The indefinite article is used: 

• to refer to something for the first time: 
An elephant and a mouse fell in love. 
Would you like a drink? 

I've finally got a good job. 

• to refer to a particular member of a group or class 

Examples: 

o with names of jobs: 

John is a doctor. 

Mary is training to be an engineer. 

He wants to be a dancer. 
o with nationalities and religions: 

John is an Englishman. 

Kate is a Catholic, 
o with musical instruments: 

Sherlock Holmes was playing a violin when the visitor arrived. 

(BUT to describe the activity we say "He plays the violin.") 
o with names of days: 

I was born on a Thursday 



to refer to a kind of, or example of something: 

the mouse had a tiny nose 

the elephant had a long trunk 

it was a very strange car 

with singular nouns, after the words 'what' and 'such': 

What a shame! 

She's such a beautiful girl. 



• meaning 'one', referring to a single object or person: 
I'd like an orange and two lemons please. 
The burglar took a diamond necklace and a valuable painting. 

Notice also that we usually say a hundred, a thousand, a million. 

NOTE: that we use 'one' to add emphasis or to contrast with other numbers: 
I don't know one person who likes eating elephant meat. 
We've got six computers but only one printer. 

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EXCEPTIONS TO USING THE DEFINITE ARTICLE 

There is no article: 

• with names of countries (if singular) 
Germany is an important economic power. 
He's just returned from Zimbabwe. 

(But: I'm visiting the United States next week.) 

• with the names of languages 
French is spoken in Tahiti. 

English uses many words of Latin origin. 
Indonesian is a relatively new language. 

• with the names of meals. 
Lunch is at midday. 
Dinner is in the evening. 
Breakfast is the first meal of the day. 

. with people's names (if singular): 
J ohn's coming to the party. 
George King is my uncle. 
(But: we're having lunch with the Morgans tomorrow.) 

. with titles and names: 
Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth's son. 
President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas. 
Dr. Watson was Sherlock Holmes' friend. 
(But: the Queen of England, the Pope.) 

. After the 's possessive case: 
His brother's car. 
Peter's house. 

. with professions: 

Engineering is a useful career. 
He'll probably go into medicine. 

. with names of shops: 

I'll get the card at Smith's. 
Can you go to Boots for me? 

. with years: 

1948 was a wonderful year. 
Do you remember 1995? 

. With uncountable nouns: 
Rice is the main food in Asia. 
Milk is often added to tea in England. 
War is destructive. 



with the names of individual mountains, lakes and islands: 

Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska. 



She lives near Lake Windermere. 
Have you visited Long Island? 

with most names of towns, streets, stations and airports: 
Victoria Station is in the centre of London. 
Can you direct me to Bond Street? 
She lives in Florence. 
They're flying from Heathrow. 

in some fixed expressions, for example: 



by car at school 

by train at work 

by air at University 

on foot in church 

on holiday in prison 

on air (in in bed 
broadcasting) 



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THE DEMONSTRATIVES 



THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE 

1. Function 

The demonstratives this, that, these, those ,show where an object or 
person is in relation to the speaker. 

This (singular) and these (plural) refer to an object or person near the 
speaker. That (singular) and those (plural) refer to an object or person 
further away. It can be a physical closeness or distance as in: 

Who owns that house? (distant) 
Is this J ohn's house? (near) 

Or it can be a psychological distance as in: 

That's nothing to do with me., (distant) 
This is a nice surprise! (near) 

2. Position 

a) Before the noun. 

b) Before the word 'one'. 

c) Before an adjective +noun. 

d) Alone when the noun is 'understood'. 

Examples: 

This car looks cleaner than that one. 

This old world keeps turning round 

Do you remember that wonderful day in J une? 

I'll never forget this. 



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THE POSSESSIVES 



Possessive pronouns and possessive adjectives show who the thing belongs to. 



PERSON, 


ADj ECTIVES 


PRONOUNS 


1st 


(1) 


my 


mine 


2nd 


(you) 


your 


yours 


3rd 


(he) 


his 


his 


(she) 


her 


hers 


(it) 


it 


its 


Plural 






1st 


(we) 


our 


ours 


2nd 


(you) 


your 


yours 


3rd 


(they) 


their 


theirs 



NOTE: In English, possessive adjectives and pronouns refer to the possessor, 
not the object or person that is possessed. 



Example: 



J ane's brother is married to J ohn's sister. 
Her brother is married to his sister. 



Examples: 



a. Peter and his sister. 

b. J ane and her father. 

c. Do you know where your books are? 

d. Is this their picnic? No, it is ours. 

e. I think this is your passport. Yes, it is mine. 



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THE QUANTIFIERS 

Quantifiers are adjectives and adjectival phrases that give approximate 
answers to the questions "How much?" and "How many?" 

Example: 

I've got a little money. 
I've got a lot of friends. 

o Quantifiers with countable and uncountable nouns 

o A few and few, a little and little 

o Some and any 

o Compound nouns made with SOME, ANY and NO 

o Graded Quantifiers 

o Enough +Noun 



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THE QUANTIFIERS 

Quantifiers with countable 
and uncountable nouns 

Adjectives and adjectival phrases that describe quantity are shown below. 
Some can only go with countable nouns (friends, cups, people), and some 
can only go with uncountable nouns (sugar, tea, money, advice). The words 
in the middle column can be used with both countable and uncountable 
nouns. 



Only with 
uncountable nouns 


With uncountable 
and countable nouns 


Only with 
countable nouns 


How much? 


How much? 


or How 


many? 


How many? 


a little 


no/ none 


a few 


a bit (of) 


not any 


a number (of) 


- 


some (any) 






several 


a great deal of 


a lot of 






a large number of 


a large amount of 


plenty of 






a great number of 


- 


lots of 






- 


+ noun 



Note: much and many are used in negative and question forms. 
Example: 

. How much money have you got? 

• How many cigarettes have you smoked? 

• There's not much sugar in the cupboard. 

. There weren't many people at the concert. 

They are also used with too, (not) so, and (not) as :There were too many 
people at the concert - we couldn't see the band. 
It's a problem when there are so many people. 
There's not so much work to do this week. 

In positive statements, we use a lot of: 

• I've got a lot of work this week. 

• There were a lot of people at the concert. 



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THE QUANTIFIERS 

A few and few, a little and little 

These expressions show the speaker's attitude towards the quantity he/ she is 
referring to. 

A few (for countable nouns) and a little (for uncountable nouns) describe 
the quantity in a positive way: 

• "I've got a few friends" ( = maybe not many, but enough) 

• "I've got a little money" (=l've got enough to live on) 

Few and little describe the quantity in a negative way: 

• Few people visited him in hospital ( = he had almost no visitors) 
. He had little money ( = almost no money) 



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THE QUANTIFIERS 

Some and Any 

Some and any are used with countable and uncountable nouns, to describe 
an indefinite or incomplete quantity. 

Some is used in positive statements: 

• I had some rice for lunch 

. He's got some books from the library. 

It is also used in questions where we are sure about the answer: 

• Did he give you some tea? ( = I'm sure he did.) 

• Is there some fruit juice in the fridge? ( = 1 think there is) 

Some is used in situations where the question is not a request for 
information, but a method of making a request, encouraging or giving an 
invitation: 

. Could I have some books, please? 

• Why don't you take some books home with you? 

• Would you like some books? 

Any is used in questions and with not in negative statements: 

• Have you got any tea? 

. He didn't give me any tea. 

. I don't think we've got any coffee left. 

More examples: 

SOME in positive sentences. 

a. I will have some news next week. 

b. She has some valuable books in her house. 

c. Philip wants some help with his exams. 

d. There is some butter in the fridge. 

e. We need some cheese if we want to make a fondue. 

SOME in questions: 

a. Would you like some help? 

b. Will you have some more roast beef? 

ANY in negative sentences 

a. She doesn't want any kitchen appliances for Christmas. 

b. They don't want any help moving to their new house. 

c. No, thank you. I don't want any more cake. 

d. There isn't any reason to complain. 



ANY in interrogative sentences 

a. Do you have any friends in London? 





b. 
c. 
d. 


Have they got any children? 

Do you want any groceries from the shop? 

Are there any problems with your work? 

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THE QUANTIFIERS 

Compound nouns made with SOME, ANY and NO 



Some + 
Any + 
No + 



-thing 



-body 



-one 



-where 



Compound nouns with some- and any- are used in the same way as some and 
any. 

Positive statements: 

• Someone is sleeping in my bed. 

. He saw something in the garden. 

• I left my glasses somewhere in the house. 

Questions: 

• Are you looking for someone? (= I'm sure you are) 

• Have you lost something? (=l'm sure you have) 

• Is there anything to eat? (real question) 
. Did you go anywhere last night? 

Negative statements: 

• She didn't go anywhere last night. 

• He doesn't know anybody here. 

NOTICE that there is a difference in emphasis between nothing, nobody etc. 
and not ... anything, not ... anybody: 

• I don't know anything about it. ( = neutral, no emphasis) 

. I know nothing about it ( = more emphatic, maybe defensive) 

More examples: 

SOMETHING, SOMEBODY, SOMEWHERE 

a. I have something to tell you. 

b. There is something to drink in the fridge. 

c. He knows somebody in New York 

d. Susie has somebody staying with her. 

e. They want to go somewhere hot for their holidays. 

f. Keith is looking for somewhere to live. 



ANYBODY, ANYTHING, ANYWHERE 

a. Is there anybody who speaks English here? 

b. Does anybody have the time? 

c. Is there anything to eat? 

d. Have you anything to say? 

e. He doesn't have anything to stay tonight. 



f. I wouldn't eat anything except at Maxim's. 

NOBODY, NOTHING, NOWHERE 

a. There is nobody in the house at the moment 

b. When I arrived there was nobody to meet me. 

c. I have learnt nothing since I began the course. 

d. There is nothing to eat. 

e. There is nowhere as beautiful as Paris in the Spring. 

f. Homeless people have nowhere to go at night. 

ANY can also be used in positive statements to mean 'no matter which', 'no 
matter who', 'no matter what': 

Examples: 

a. You can borrow any of my books. 

b. They can choose anything from the menu. 

c. You may invite anybody to dinner, I don't mind. 

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THE QUANTIFIERS 

Graded Quantifiers 

They function like comparatives and hold a relative 
position on a scale of increase or decrease. 



INCREASE From 0%to 100% 


With plural countable nouns: 
many more 


most 


With uncountable nouns: 
much more 


most 




DECREASE From 100% to 0% 


With plural countable nouns: 
few fewer 


fewest 


With uncountable nouns: 
little less 


least 



Examples: 



. There are many people in England, more in India, 
but the most people live in China. 

• Much time and money is spent on education, more 
on health services but the most is spent on 
national defence. 

. Few rivers in Europe are not polluted. 

• Fewer people die young now than in the 
seventeenth century. 

. The country with the fewest people per square 
kilometre must be Australia. 

• Scientists have little hope of finding a complete 
cure for cancer before the year 2,000. 

• She had less time to study than Paul but had better 
results. 

. Give that dog the least opportunity and it will bite 
you. 

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THE QUANTIFIERS 

Enough + Noun 

Enough is placed before the noun, to indicate the quantity required or 
necessary: 

• There is enough bread for lunch. 

• She has enough money. 

Enough is also used with adjectives and adverbs - see these sections. 

• We didn't have enough time to visit London Bridge. 

• Are there enough eggs to make an omelette? 

• Richard has enough talent to become a singing star. 



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THE DISTRIBUTIVES 

ALL, BOTH, HALF 

EACH, EVERY, EITHER, NEITHER 

These words refer to a group of people or things, and to individual members of the 
group. They show different ways of looking at the individuals within a group, and 
they express how something is distributed, shared or divided. 



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THE DISTRIBUTIVES 



ALL, BOTH, HALF 



These words can be used in the following ways: 





1 


- 


Uncountable noun 




2 


the 


or 


ALL + 


3 


my, your, etc. 


Countable noun in the plural 




4a 


this, that 


Uncountable noun 




4b 


these, those 


Countable noun in the plural 



Example: 

1. All cheese contains protein 
All children need affection 

2. All the people in the room were silent. 
Have you eaten all the bread? 

3. I've invited all my friends to the party. 

I've been waiting all my life for this opportunity. 

4a. Who's left all this paper on my desk? 
4b. Look at all those balloons! 





1 " 






2 the 


Countable noun in the plural 


BOTH + 


3 my, your, etc. 

4 these, those 





Example: 

1. Both children were born in Italy. 

2. He has crashed both (of) the cars. 

3. Both (of) my parents have fair hair. 

4 You can take both (of) these books back to the 
library. 
See note below 





1 


a 


Uncountable 




2 


the 


or 


HALF + 


3 


my, your, etc. 


countable noun 




4 


this, that, 
these, those 





Example: 

1. I bought half a kilo of apples yesterday. 

2. You can have half (of) the cake. 
She gave me half (of) the apples. 

3. I've already given you half (of) my money. 
Half (of) his books were in French. 

4 Half (of) these snakes are harmless 

You can take half (of) this sugar. 

NOTE: All, both, half + OF: 'OF' must be added when followed by a pronoun: 

All of you; both of us; half of them 

It is also quite common to add it in most of the above situations except when 
there is no article (No.l in all the tables above.) 

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THE DISTRIBUTIVES 

EACH, EVERY, EITHER, NEITHER 

These distributive words are normally used with singular nouns, and are 
placed before the noun. 

Each, either and neither can be used with plural nouns but must be 
followed by 'of: 

Each is a way of seeing the members of a group as individuals: 

. Each child received a present. 

• Each of the children received a present. 

Every is a way of seeing a group as a series of members: 

• Every child in the world deserves affection. 

It can also express different points in a series, especially with time 
expressions: 

• Every third morning J ohn goes jogging. 

• This magazine is published every other week. 

Either and Neither are concerned with distribution between two things ■ 
either is positive, neither is negative: 

. Which chair do you want? Either chair will do. 

• I can stay at either hotel, they are both good 

. There are two chairs here. You can take either of them. 

• Neither chair is any good, they're both too small. 

• Which chair do you want? Neither of them - they're both too small. 



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DIFFERENCE WORDS 



OTHER, ANOTHER 

These words refer to something different, remaining, or additional. 

They are placed before the noun. 

Another is used with singular nouns, other with singular or plural. 

• There are other jobs you could try. 

. Where's the other packet of cereals? 

. Is there any other bread? 

. Have another cup of tea. 



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QUESTION WORDS 

WHICH, WHAT, WHOSE 

In questions, these words ask which thing or person is being referred to. They 
are placed before the noun. 

. Which dress are you going to wear tonight? 

• What colour is your dress? 

. Whose car are you going to use? 

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DEFINING WORDS 



WHICH AND WHOSE 

In a statement, these words define or explain which thing or person is 
referred to: 

Example: 

• He went back to the house. (Which house?) The house which stood on 
the corner. =He went back to the house which stood on the corner. 

• I saw the man. (Which man?) The man whose car you damaged. =1 
saw the man whose car you damaged. 

More examples: 

. He couldn't remember which film he had seen. 

. That's the man whose wife works in my office. 

• Tell me which coffee you like. 

• The woman whose dog bit you is at the door. 



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PRE-DETERMINERS 



SUCH, WHAT, RATHER, QUITE 

These words are normally placed before the indefinite article. 
Such and what are often used to express surprise or other emotions: 

Examples: 

a. What a lovely day! 

b. She's such a lovely woman! 

c. What an incredible film! 

d. He's such a fantastic guitarist! 

Rather and quite are 'commenting' words, referring to the degree of a 
particular quality. They can express disappointment, pleasure, or other 
emotions, and are used before a/ an + adjective +noun: 

Examples: 

a. It's rather a small car. ( = l'm a bit disappointed because it's small) 

b. It was quite a nice day. (= I was agreeably surprised. ) 

c. He's had quite a bad accident. (=l'm worried) 

d. I've j ust met rather a nice man. (= I'm pleased) 



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THE INFINITIVE 

The zero infinitive is used: 

a. after most auxiliaries (e.g. must, can, should, may, might) 

b. after verbs of perception , (e.g. see, hear, feel) with the pattern verb + 
object + zero infinitive 

c. after the verbs 'make' and let' , with the pattern make/let + object + zero 
infinitive 

d. after the expression 'had better' 

e. after the expression 'would rather' 
when referring to the speaker's own actions 



Examples: 
After auxiliaries: 

• She can't speak to you. 

• He should give her some money. 
. Shall I talk to him? 

. Would you like a cup of coffee? 

. I might stay another night in the hotel. 

. They must leave before 10.00 a.m. 

After verbs of perception: 

. He saw her fall from the cliff. 
. We heard them close the door. 

• They saw us walk toward the lake. 

. She felt the spider crawl up her leg. 

After the verbs 'make' and 'let': 

• Her parents let her stay out late. 
. Let's go to the cinema tonight. 

• You made me love you. 

• Don't make me study that boring grammar book! 

NOTICE that the to-infinitive' is used when 'make' is in the passive voice: 

. I am made to sweep the floor every day. 

. She was made to eat fish even though she hated it. 



After 'had better': 



We had better take some warm clothing. 

She had better ask him not to come. 

You'd better not smile at a crocodile! 

We had better reserve a room in the hotel. 

You'd better give me your address. 

They had better work harder on their grammar! 

After 'would rather': 

Note: this is ONLY when referring to the speaker's own actions - see 'would 
rather' in section on Unreal past. 



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THE INFINITIVE 



1. Form 

The infinitive is the base form of a verb. It may be preceded by 'to' (the to- 
infinitive) or stand alone (the base or zero infinitive). 

2. Infinitive with or without 'to' 

The to-infinitive is used: 

a. after certain verbs, e.g. want, wish, agree, fail, mean, decide, learn 

b. after the auxiliaries to be to, to have to, and ought to 

c. in the pattern 'it is +adjective + to-i nf i nitive' 

Examples: 
with 'to' 

. The elephant decided to marry the mouse 

• The mouse agreed to marry the elephant 

• You will have to ask her 

• You are to leave immediately 

• Me ought to relax 

• She has to go to Berlin next week 
. It's easy to speak English 

• It is hard to change j obs after twenty years 

• It's stupid to believe everything you hear 

without 'to' 

• I would rather visit Rome. 

. She would rather live in Italy. 

. Would you rather eat steak or fish? 

. Me would rather work in a bank. 

. I'd rather be a forest than a tree. 



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THE ZERO 1 CONDITIONAL 



1. Form 



In 'zero' conditional sentences, the tense in both parts of the sentence is the 
simple present: 



'IF' CLAUSE (CONDITION) 



If + simple present 

If you heat ice 
If it rains 



MAIN CLAUSE (RESULT) 



simple present 

it melts, 
you get wet 



NOTE: The order of the clauses is not fixed - the 'if clause can be first or 
second: 

• Ice melts if you heat it. 

• You get wet if it rains. 

2. Function 

In these sentences, the time is now or always and the situation is real and 
possible. They are used to make statements about the real world, and often 
refer to general truths, such as scientific facts. 

Examples: 

a. If you freeze water, it becomes a solid. 

b. Plants die if they don't get enough water. 

c. If my husband has a cold, I usually catch it. 

d. If public transport is efficient, people stop using their cars. 

e. If you mix red and blue, you get purple. 

This structure is often used to give instructions, using the imperative in the 
main clause: 

If Bill phones, tell him to meet me at the cinema. 
Ask Pete if you're not sure what to do. 



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THE INFINITIVE 

VERBS NORMALLY FOLLOWED BY THE INFINITIVE 

C. These are the most common of the verbs followed by a to-infinitive, with 
or without a noun. 

Example: 

• I asked him to show me the book. 
. I asked to see the book. 



ask* 

beg* 

choose 

dare 

desire* 

elect 



expect* 

help 

mean* (=intend) 

request* 

want 

wish* 



The verbs marked * can also be followed by a that-clause 

Note: 

dare: In negative and interrogative sentences the infinitive with or without 
to' is possible, though it is more common to omit the 'to': 

. I never dared tell him what happened. 

• Dare you tell him the news? 

. Would you dare (to) j ump out of a plane? 

Examples: 

. We've chosen J ohn to represent the company at the conference. 

. The elephant didn't mean to tread on the mouse. 

• We expect you to do your best in the exam. 

• Do you want to go to the beach? 

• Do you want me to go with you to the beach? 
. You are requested to be quiet in this library. 

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REPORTED SPEECH 

SUMMARY OF REPORTING VERBS 

Note that some reporting verbs may appear in more than one of the following 
groups. 

1. Verbs followed by if or 'whether' + clause: 



ask 


say 


know 


see 


remember 





2. Verbs followed by a that-clause: 



add 


doubt 


reply 


admit 


estimate 


report 


agree 


explain 


reveal 


announce 


fear 


say 


answer 


feel 


state 


argue 


insist 


suggest 


boast 


mention 


suppose 


claim 


observe 


tell 


comment 


persuade 


think 


complain 


propose 


understand 


confirm 


remark 


warn 


consider 


remember 




deny 


repeat 





3. Verbs followed by either a that-clause or a to-infinitive: 



decide 


promise 


expect 


swear 


guarantee 


threaten 


hope 





4. Verbs followed by a that-clause containing should 

(but note that it may be omitted, leaving a subject +zero-infinitive) 



advise 


insist 


recommend 


beg 


prefer 


request 


demand 


propose 


suggest 



5. Verbs followed by a clause starting with a question word: 



decide 


imagine 


see 


describe 


know 


suggest 


discover 


learn 


teach 


discuss 


realise 


tell 


explain 


remember 


think 


forget 


reveal 


understand 


guess 


say 


wonder 



6. Verbs followed by object + to-infinitive 



advise 


forbid 


teach 


ask 


instruct 


tell 


beg 


invite 


warn 


command 







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- ING 1 FORM 

VERBS FOLLOWED BY THE GERUND 

The gerund is used after certain verbs. 

Example: 

miss: I miss living in England. 

The most important of these verbs are shown below. 
Those marked * can also be followed by a that-clause 

Example: 



VERB 


GERUND 




She admitted... 


breaking 


the window 




THAT-CLAUSE 


She admitted... 


that she had broken the window. 


acknowledge,* 




keep, 


admit,* 




loathe, 


anticipate,* apprec 


iate,* 


mean,(=have as result)* 


avoid, 




mention,* 


celebrate, 




mind, 


consider, contemplate, 


miss, 


defer, 




pardon, 


delay, 




postpone, 


deny,* 




prevent, 


detest, 




propose,* 


dislike, 




recall,* 


dread, 




recollect,* 


enj oy, 




remember, 


entail, 




report,* 


escape, 




resent, 


excuse, 




resist, 


fancy (=i imagine)*, 




risk, 


finish, 




save (=prevent the wasted 


forgive, 




effort) 


imagine,* 




stop, 


involve, 




suggest,* 
understand,* 



Notes: 



Appreciate is followed by a possessive adjective and the gerund when the 

gerund does not refer to the subject. Compare : 

I appreciate having some time off work. (I'm having the time...) 

I appreciate your giving me some time off work. (You're giving me the 

time...) 



Excuse, forgive, pardon can be followed by an object and the gerund or for 
+ object and the gerund (both common in spoken English), or a possessive 
adjective +gerund (more formal and less likely to be said): 
Excuse me interrupting. 
Excuse me for interrupting. 
Excuse my interrupting. 

Suggest can be used in a number of ways, but BE CAREFUL. It is important 
not to confuse these patterns: 

suggest/ suggested ( + possessive adjective) + gerund: 

He suggests going to Glastonbury 

He suggested going to Glastonbury 

He suggested/ suggests my going to Glastonbury 

suggest/ suggested +that-clause (where both that and should 

may be omitted): 

He suggests that I should go to Glastonbury 

He suggested that I should go to Glastonbury 

He suggested/ suggests I should go to Glastonbury 

He suggested/ suggests I go to Glastonbury 

He suggested I went to Glastonbury. 

suggest/ suggested +question word + infinitive: 
He suggested where to go. 

Propose is followed by the gerund when it means 'suggest': 

J ohn proposed going to the debate 

but by the infinitive when it means 'intend': 

The Government proposes bringing in new laws. . 

Stop can be followed by a gerund or infinitive, but there is a change of 
meaning - see GERUND / INFINITIVE? section. 

Dread is followed by the infinitive when used with 'think', in the expression 'I 

dread to think': 

I dread to think what she'll do next. 

Prevent is followed 

EITHER by a possessive adjective +gerund: 
You can't prevent my leaving. 

OR by an object +from +gerund: 
You can't prevent me from leaving. 

Examples: 

. Normally, a mouse wouldn't contemplate marrying an elephant. 

. Most mice dread meeting elephants. 

• We can't risk getting wet - we haven't got any dry clothes. 

• If you take that job it will mean getting home late every night. 
. I can't imagine living in that big house. 

• If you buy some petrol now, it will save you stopping on the way to 
London. 

• She couldn't resist eating the plum she found in the fridge. 

• They decided to postpone painting the house until the weather 
improved. 

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- ING 1 FORM 

GERUND OR INFINITIVE? 

The two groups of verbs below can be followed either by the gerund or by 
the infinitive. Usually this has no effect on the meaning, but with some verbs 
there is a clear difference in meaning. Verbs marked * can also be followed 
by a that-clause. 

Example: to prefer 

I prefer to live in an apartment. 
I prefer living in an apartment. 

A. Verbs where there is little or no difference in meaning: 



allow 


deserve 


neglect 


attempt 


fear* 


omit 


begin 


hate* 


permit 


bother 


intend* 


prefer* 


cease 


like 


recommend* 


continue 


love 


start 



Notes: 



1. Allow is used in these two patterns: 

a. Allow +object +to-i nf initi ve: 

Her parents allowed her to go to the party. 

b. Allow +gerund: 

Her parents don't allow smoking in the house. 

2. Deserve + gerund is not very common, but is mainly used with passive 
constructions or where there is a passive meaning: 

a. Your proposals deserve being considered in detail. 

b. These ideas deserve discussing. ( = to be discussed). 

3. The verbs hate, love, like, prefer are usually followed by a gerund when 
the meaning is general, and by a to-infinitive when they refer to a particular 
time or situation. You must always use the to-infinitive with the expressions 
'would love to', 'would hate to', etc. 

Compare: 

I hate to tell you, but Uncle J im is coming this weekend. 

I hate looking after elderly relatives! 

I love dancing. 

I would love to dance with you. 



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(fijfJacJt irregular verbs introduction page 

COMMON GROUP 2 ENGLISH IRREGULAR VERBS 

Two of the three forms are the same. 



Examples with 'catch': 

• Mary catches the bus to work every day. 

• Mary caught the bus to work yesterday. 

• Mary has caught the bus to work since her car broke down. 



Base 


Past 


Past Participle 


Group 


Note 


beat 


beat 


beaten 


2 




become 


became 


become 


2 




behold 


beheld 


beheld 


2 




bend 


bent 


bent 


2 




beseech 


besought 


besought 


2 




bet 


bet, betted 


bet, betted 


2 




bind 


bound 


bound 


2 




bleed 


bled 


bled 


2 




breed 


bred 


bred 


2 




bring 


brought 


brought 


2 




build 


built 


built 


2 




burn 


burnt, burned 


burnt, burned 


2 


regular in AE 


buy 


bought 


bought 


2 




catch 


caught 


caught 


2 




cling 


clung 


clung 


2 




come 


came 


come 


2 




creep 


crept 


crept 


2 




dare 


dared 


dared 


2 




deal 


dealt 


dealt 


2 




dig 


dug 


dug 


2 




dive 


dived 


dived 


2 




dream 


dreamt 


dreamt 


2 


regular in AE 


dwell 


dwelt, dwelled 


dwelt, dwelled 


2 




feed 


fed 


fed 


2 




feel 


felt 


felt 


2 




fight 


fought 


fought 


2 




find 


found 


found 


2 




fit 


fit, fitted 


fit, fitted 


2 


regular in BE 


flee 


fled 


fled 


2 




fling 


flung 


flung 


2 




get 


got 


got, gotten 


2 


'gotten' in AE 


gild 


gilt, gilded 


gilt, gilded 


2 




gird 


girt, girded 


girt, girded 


2 




grind 


ground 


ground 


2 





hang 


hung 




hung 




2 




have 


had 




had 




2 




hear 


heard 




heard 




2 




hold 


held 




held 




2 




keep 


kept 




kept 




2 




kneel 


knelt 




knelt 




2 




lay 


laid 




laid 




2 




lead 


led 




led 




2 




leap 


leapt, 


eaped 


leapt, 


eaped 


2 




learn 


learnt 




learnt 




2 


regular in AE 


leave 


left 




left 




2 




lend 


lent 




lent 




2 




light 


lit 




lit 




2 




lose 


lost 




lost 




2 




make 


made 




made 




2 




mean 


meant 




meant 




2 




meet 


met 




met 




2 




pay 


paid 




paid 




2 




plead 


pled, pleaded 


pled, pleaded 


2 




rend 


rent 




rent 




2 




run 


ran 




run 




2 




say 


said 




said 




2 




seek 


sought 




sought 




2 




sell 


sold 




sold 




2 




send 


sent 




sent 




2 




shine 


shone 




shone 




2 




sit 


sat 




sat 




2 




sleep 


slept 




slept 




2 




slide 


slid 




slid 




2 




sling 


slung 




slung 




2 




slink 


slunk 




slunk 




2 




smell 


smelt 




smelt 




2 


regular in AE 


sneak 


snuck, 


sneaked 


snuck, 


sneaked 


2 




speed 


sped, speeded 


sped, speeded 


2 




spell 


spelt 




spelt 




2 


regular in AE 


spend 


spent 




spent 




2 




spill 


spilt 




spilt 




2 


regular in AE 


spin 


spun 




spun 




2 




spit 


spat 




spat 




2 




spoil 


spoilt, 


spoiled 


spoilt, 


spoiled 


2 




stand 


stood 




stood 




2 




stick 


stuck 




stuck 




2 




sting 


stung 




stung 




2 




strike 


struck 




struck 




2 




sweep 


swept 




swept 




2 




swing 


swung 




swung 




2 




teach 


taught 




taught 




2 




tell 


told 




told 




2 





















think thought 


thought 


2 




understand understood 


understood 


2 


weep wept 


wept 


2 


wet wet, wetted 


wet, wetted 


2 regular in BE 


win won 


won 


2 


wind wound 


wound 


2 


withdraw withdrew 


withdraw 


2 


wring wrung 


wrung 


2 


AE=American English 
BE=6ritish English 












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ENGLISH IRREGULAR VERBS 



Irregular verbs are the bane of students whose mother tongue is not English and who are trying to 
understand how these verbs are applied in various tenses. They even trip up native English speakers 
who arent always sure of the form of these verbs! It isn't made any easier by the fact that some 
verbs are regular in American English and irregular in British English. 

However, there are some general classifications that make it a little easier to remember how these 
verbs are formed and to remember them when applying them in your sentences. 

Irregular verbs in English fall into three categories: 



1. GROUP 1: verbs where all three forms are the same - e.g. 'hit, hit, hit' 

2. GROUP 2: verbs where two of the three forms are the same - e.g. 'become, 



became, become' 
GROUP 3: verbs where al 



three forms are different - e.g. 'choose, chose, chosen' 



Common irregular verbs that differ in American English and British English 



wake can be regular in American English but is irregular in British English 

dive is irregular in American English but regular in British English 

get in American English usually has a past particple of 'gotten' while in British English the 

past participle is 'got' 

wet, quit, and fit are regular in British English but irregular in American English 

learn, lean, smell, burn, dream, spill and spoil are all regular in American English while in 

British English they can be regular but is more common to see the past and past participles 

with -t added (e.g. dreamt, spoilt, spilt, smelt) 



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l Q)Back irregular verbs introduction page 



COMMON GROUP 1 ENGLISH IRREGULAR VERBS 

All three forms are the same. 



Base 


Past 


Past Participle 


Group 


Note 


bid 


bid 


bid 


1 




cut 


cut 


cut 


1 




hit 


hit 


hit 


1 




hurt 


hurt 


hurt 


1 




let 


let 


let 


1 




put 


put 


put 


1 




quit 


quit 


quit 


1 


regular in BE 


read 


read 


read 


1 




rid 


rid 


rid 


1 




shut 


shut 


shut 


1 




split 


split 


split 


1 




spread 


spread 


spread 


1 




thrust 


thrust 


thrust 


1 




AE=American English 
BE=British English 



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l Q)Back irregular verbs introduction page 



COMMON GROUP 3 ENGLISH IRREGULAR VERBS 

All of the three forms are different. 
Examples with 'begin': 

• I begin my day with a glass of organge juice. 

• I began to study French when I was living in Paris. 

• I have begun to understand my parents since I have had children of my own. 



Base 


Past 


Past Participle 


Group 


Note 


arise 


arose 


arisen 


3 




awake 


awoke, awaked 


awoken 


3 




be 


was 


been 


3 




bear 


bore 


borne 


3 




befall 


befell 


befallen 


3 




beget 


begot 


begotten 


3 




begin 


began 


begun 


3 




bereave 


bereaved 


bereft 


3 




bestride 


bestrode 


bestridden 


3 




bid 


bade 


bidden 


3 




bite 


bit 


bitten 


3 




blow 


blew 


blown 


3 




blow 


blew 


blown 


3 




break 


broke 


broken 


3 




broadcast 


broadcast 


broadcast 


3 




burst 


burst 


burst 


3 




cast 


cast 


cast 


3 




choose 


chose 


chosen 


3 




cost 


cost 


cost 


3 




dive 


dove 


dived 


3 


regular in BE 


do 


did 


done 


3 




draw 


drew 


drawn 


3 




drink 


drank 


drunk 


3 




drive 


drove 


driven 


3 




eat 


ate 


eaten 


3 




fall 


fell 


fallen 


3 




fly 


flew 


flown 


3 




forbear 


forbore 


forborne 


3 




forbid 


forbade 


forbidden 


3 




forget 


forgot 


forgotten 


3 




forgive 


forgave 


forgiven 


3 




forsake 


forsook 


forsaken 


3 

















freeze froze 


frozen 


3 




give gave 


given 


3 


go went 


gone 


3 


grow grew 


grown 


3 


hide hid 


hidden 


3 


know knew 


known 


3 


lie lay 


lain 


3 


melt melted 


melted, molten 


3 


mow mowed 


mown, mowed 


3 


ride rode 


ridden 


3 


ring rang 


rung 


3 


rise rose 


risen 


3 


rise rose 


risen 


3 


see saw 


seen 


3 


sew sewed 


sewn 


3 


shake shook 


shaken 


3 


shear sheared 


shorn, sheared 


3 


shed shed 


shed 


3 


shoe shod, shoed 


shone 


3 


shoot shot 


shone 


3 


show showed 


shown 


3 


shrink shrank 


shrunk 


3 


sing sang 


sung 


3 


sink sank 


sunk 


3 


slit slit 


slit 


3 


smite smote 


smitten 


3 


speak spoke 


spoken 


3 


spring sprang 


sprung 


3 


steal stole 


stolen 


3 


stride strode 


stridden 


3 


swear swore 


sworn 


3 


swim swam 


swum 


3 


take took 


taken 


3 


tear tore 


torn 


3 


throw threw 


thrown 


3 


tread trod 


trodden 


3 


tread trod 


trodden 


3 


undergo underwent 


undergone 


3 


undertake undertook 


undertaken 


3 


wake woke 


woken 


3 can be regular in AE 


wear wore 


worn 


3 


weave wove 


woven 


3 


write wrote 


written 


3 


AE=American English 
BE=British English 












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ENGLISH IRREGULAR VERBS 



Base 


Past 


Past Participle 


Group 


arise 


arose 


arisen 


3 


awake 


awoke, awaked 


awoken 


3 


be 


was 


been 


3 


bear 


bore 


borne 


3 


beat 


beat 


beaten 


2 


become 


became 


become 


2 


befall 


befell 


befallen 


3 


beget 


begot 


begotten 


3 


begin 


began 


begun 


3 


behold 


beheld 


beheld 


2 


bend 


bent 


bent 


2 


bereave 


bereaved 


bereft 


3 


beseech 


besought 


besought 


2 


bestride 


bestrode 


bestridden 


3 


bet 


bet, betted 


bet, betted 


2 


bid 


bade 


bidden 


3 


bid 


bid 


bid 


1 


bind 


bound 


bound 


2 


bite 


bit 


bitten 


3 


bleed 


bled 


bled 


2 


blow 


blew 


blown 


3 


blow 


blew 


blown 


3 


break 


broke 


broken 


3 


breed 


bred 


bred 


2 


bring 


brought 


brought 


2 


broadcast 


broadcast 


broadcast 


3 


build 


built 


built 


2 


burn 


burnt, burned 


burnt, burned 


2 


burst 


burst 


burst 


3 


buy 


bought 


bought 


2 


cast 


cast 


cast 


3 


catch 


caught 


caught 


2 


choose 


chose 


chosen 


3 


cling 


clung 


clung 


2 


come 


came 


come 


2 


cost 


cost 


cost 


3 


creep 


crept 


crept 


2 


cut 


cut 


cut 


1 


dare 


dared 


dared 


2 


deal 


dealt 


dealt 


2 



dig 


dug 


dug 


2 


dive 


dove 


dived 


3 


dive 


dived 


dived 


2 


do 


did 


done 


3 


draw 


drew 


drawn 


3 


dream 


dreamt 


dreamt 


2 


drink 


drank 


drunk 


3 


drive 


drove 


driven 


3 


dwell 


dwelt, dwelled 


dwelt, dwelled 


2 


eat 


ate 


eaten 


3 


fall 


fell 


fallen 


3 


feed 


fed 


fed 


2 


feel 


felt 


felt 


2 


fight 


fought 


fought 


2 


find 


found 


found 


2 


fit 


fit, fitted 


fit, fitted 


2 


flee 


fled 


fled 


2 


fling 


flung 


flung 


2 


fly 


flew 


flown 


3 


forbear 


forbore 


forborne 


3 


forbid 


forbade 


forbidden 


3 


forget 


forgot 


forgotten 


3 


forgive 


forgave 


forgiven 


3 


forsake 


forsook 


forsaken 


3 


freeze 


froze 


frozen 


3 


get 


got 


got, gotten 


2 


gild 


gilt, gilded 


gilt, gilded 


2 


gird 


girt, girded 


girt, girded 


2 


give 


gave 


given 


3 


go 


went 


gone 


3 


grind 


ground 


ground 


2 


grow 


grew 


grown 


3 


hang 


hung 


hung 


2 


have 


had 


had 


2 


hear 


heard 


heard 


2 


hide 


hid 


hidden 


3 


hit 


hit 


hit 


1 


hold 


held 


held 


2 


hurt 


hurt 


hurt 


1 


keep 


kept 


kept 


2 


kneel 


knelt 


knelt 


2 


know 


knew 


known 


3 


lay 


laid 


laid 


2 


lead 


led 


led 


2 


leap 


leapt, leaped 


leapt, leaped 


2 


learn 


learnt 


learnt 


2 


leave 


left 


left 


2 


lend 


lent 


lent 


2 











let 


let 


let 


1 


lie 


lay 


lain 


3 


light 


lit 


lit 


2 


lose 


lost 


lost 


2 


make 


made 


made 


2 


mean 


meant 


meant 


2 


meet 


met 


met 


2 


melt 


melted 


melted, molten 


3 


mow 


mowed 


mown, mowed 


3 


pay 


paid 


paid 


2 


plead 


pled, pleaded 


pled, pleaded 


2 


put 


put 


put 


1 


quit 


quit 


quit 


1 


read 


read 


read 


1 


rend 


rent 


rent 


2 


rid 


rid 


rid 


1 


ride 


rode 


ridden 


3 


ring 


rang 


rung 


3 


rise 


rose 


risen 


3 


rise 


rose 


risen 


3 


run 


ran 


run 


2 


say 


said 


said 


2 


see 


saw 


seen 


3 


seek 


sought 


sought 


2 


sell 


sold 


sold 


2 


send 


sent 


sent 


2 


sew 


sewed 


sewn 


3 


shake 


shook 


shaken 


3 


shear 


sheared 


shorn, sheared 


3 


shed 


shed 


shed 


3 


shine 


shone 


shone 


2 


shoe 


shod, shoed 


shone 


3 


shoot 


shot 


shone 


3 


show 


showed 


shown 


3 


shrink 


shrank 


shrunk 


3 


shut 


shut 


shut 


1 


sing 


sang 


sung 


3 


sink 


sank 


sunk 


3 


sit 


sat 


sat 


2 


sleep 


slept 


slept 


2 


slide 


slid 


slid 


2 


sling 


slung 


slung 


2 


slink 


slunk 


slunk 


2 


slit 


slit 


slit 


3 


smell 


smelt 


smelt 


2 


smite 


smote 


smitten 


3 


sneak 


snuck, sneaked 


snuck, sneaked 


2 


speak 


spoke 


spoken 


3 











speed 


sped, speeded 


sped, speeded 


2 


spell 


spelt 


spelt 


2 


spend 


spent 


spent 


2 


spill 


spilt 


spilt 


2 


spin 


spun 


spun 


2 


spit 


spat 


spat 


2 


split 


split 


split 


1 


spoil 


spoilt, spoiled 


spoilt, spoiled 


2 


spread 


spread 


spread 


1 


spring 


sprang 


sprung 


3 


stand 


stood 


stood 


2 


steal 


stole 


stolen 


3 


stick 


stuck 


stuck 


2 


sting 


stung 


stung 


2 


stride 


strode 


stridden 


3 


strike 


struck 


struck 


2 


swear 


swore 


sworn 


3 


sweep 


swept 


swept 


2 


swim 


swam 


swum 


3 


swing 


swung 


swung 


2 


take 


took 


taken 


3 


teach 


taught 


taught 


2 


tear 


tore 


torn 


3 


tell 


told 


told 


2 


think 


thought 


thought 


2 


throw 


threw 


thrown 


3 


thrust 


thrust 


thrust 


1 


tread 


trod 


trodden 


3 


tread 


trod 


trodden 


3 


undergo 


underwent 


undergone 


3 


understand 


understood 


understood 


2 


undertake 


undertook 


undertaken 


3 


wake 


woke 


woken 


3 


wear 


wore 


worn 


3 


weave 


wove 


woven 


3 


weep 


wept 


wept 


2 


wet 


wet, wetted 


wet, wetted 


2 


win 


won 


won 


2 


wind 


wound 


wound 


2 


withdraw 


withdrew 


withdraw 


2 


wring 


wrung 


wrung 


2 


write 


wrote 


written 


3 



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THE INFINITIVE 

VERBS NORMALLY FOLLOWED BY THE INFINITIVE 

B. These are the most common of the verbs that are normally followed by a 
noun + infinitive. The verbs marked * may also be followed by a that- 
clause'. 

Example: 



NOUN 



INFINITIVE 



He reminded 


me 


to buy some eggs. 
THAT-CLAUSE 




He reminded 


me 


that 1 had to buy some eggs. 


accustom 


entitle 




order* 


aid 


entreat 




persuade* 


appoint 


force 




press 


assist 


get 




prompt 


cause 


implore* 




provoke 


challenge 


incite 




remind* 


command* 


induce 




require* 


defy 


inspire 




stimulate 


direct* 


instruct* 




summon 


drive 


invite 




teach 


empower 


lead 




tell 


enable 


leave (make 


someone responsible) 


tempt 


encourage 


oblige 




trust* 


entice 






warn* 



Notes: 

command, direct, entreat, implore, order, require, trust: 

there is no noun between these verbs and a 'that-clause': 

. The general commanded his men to surrender. 

• The general commanded that his men should surrender. 

persuade and remind: 

there is always a noun between these verbs and a 'that-clause': 

• You can't persuade people to buy small cars. 

. You can't persuade people that small cars are better. 

instruct, teach, warn: 

the noun is optional between these verbs and a 'that-clause': 



She taught her students to appreciate poetry. 
She taught her students that poetry was valuable. 
She taught that poetry was valuable. 



Examples: 



The professor challenged his students to argue with his theory. 

This law empowers the government to charge more taxes. 

You can't force me to do something I don't agree with. 

You are obliged to drive on the left in England. 

I invited the new student to have dinner with me. 

What inspired you to write this poem? 

The elephant told the mouse to climb up his tail. 

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THE INFINITIVE 

VERBS NORMALLY FOLLOWED BY THE INFINITIVE 

A. The to-infinitive is used after the verbs in this group, without a 
preceding noun. The verbs marked * can also be followed by a that-clause' 

Example: 



I hope. 



I hope. 



TO-INFINITIVE 



to see you next week. 

THAT- CLAUSE 

that I'll see you next week 



afford 


fail 


promise* 


agree* 


guarantee* 


propose 


aim 


happen t 


prove ( = turn out) 


appear t 


hasten 


refuse resolve* 


arrange* 


have ( = be obliged) 


seek 


bother 


hesitate 


seem t 


care 


hope* 


strive 


claim* 


learn 


swear* 


condescend 


long 


tend 


consent 


manage 


threaten* 


decide* 


offer 


trouble 


demand* 


prepare 


undertake 


determine* 


pretend* 


volunteer 


endeavour 


proceed 


vow* 



t These verbs can only be followed by a 'that-clause' when they have the 
subject 'it', e.g. It appeared that no-one had locked the door. 



Examples: 



He claimed to be an expert. 

I managed to reach the top of the hill. 

I know you're only pretending to love me! 

Don't pretend that you know the answer. 

She failed to explain the problem clearly. 

The customs man demanded to search our luggage. 

I can't afford to go out tonight. 



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TENSES 

PRESENT CONTINUOUS 

1. Present continuous, form 

The present continuous of any verb is composed of two parts - the present 
tense of the verb to be +the present participle of the main verb. 

(The form of the present participle is: base-ring, e.g. talking, playing, 
moving, smiling) 



Affirmative 


Subject 


+to be 


+ base-Hng 


she 


is 


talking 




Negative 


Subject 


+ to be + not 


+ base-ting 


she 


is not (isn't) 


talking 




Interrogative 


to be 


+ subject 


+ base-ting 


is 


she 


talking? 



Example: to go, present continuous 



Affirmative 


Negative 


Interrogative 


1 am going 


1 am not going 


Am 1 going? 


You are going 


You aren't going. 


Are you going? 


He, she, it is going 


He, she, it isn't going 


Is he, she, it going? 


We are going 


We aren't going 


Are we going? 


You are going 


You aren't going 


Are you going? 


They are going 


They aren't going 


Are they going? 



Note: alternative negative contractions: I'm not going, you're not going, he's 
not going etc. 

2. Present continuous, function 

As with all tenses in English, the speaker's attitude is as important as the 
time of the action or event. When someone uses the present continuous, 
they are thinking about something that is unfinished or incomplete. 



The present continuous is used: 



to describe an action that is going on at this moment e.g. You are using the 
Internet. You are studying English grammar. 

to describe an action that is going on during this period of time or a trend, e.g. 
Are you still working for the same company? More and more people are becoming 

vegetarian. 

to describe an action or event in the future, which has already been planned or 
prepared (See also Ways of expressing the future) e.g. We're going on holiday 
tomorrow. I'm meeting my boyfriend tonight. Are they visiting you next winter? 

to describe a temporary event or situation, e.g. He usually plays the drums, but 
he's playing bass guitar tonight. The weather forecast was good, but it's raining at 
the moment. 

with 'always, forever, constantly', to describe and emphasise a continuing series of 
repeated actions, e.g. Harry and Sally are always arguing! You're forever 
complaining about your mother-in-law! 

BE CAREFUL! Some verbs are not used in the continuous form - see below. 

3. Verbs that are not normally used in the continuous form 

The verbs in the list below are normally used in the simple form, because 
they refer to states, rather than actions or processes: 

List of common verbs normally used in simple form: 



Senses / Perception 



feel*, hear, see*, smell, taste 

assume, believe, consider, doubt, feel (= think), find (=consider), 
suppose, think* 



Mental states 



forget, imagine, know, mean, notice, recognise, remember, understand 



Emotions/ desires 



envy, fear, dislike, hate, hope, like, love, mind, prefer, regret, want, 
wish 



Measurement 



contain, cost, hold, measure, weigh 

look (=resemble), seem, be (in most cases), have (when it means to 
possess)* 

Notes: 

1. 'Perception' verbs (see, hear, feel, taste, smell) are often used with 'can': 
e.g. I can see... 

2. * These verbs may be used in the continuous form but with a different 
meaning, compare: 

a. This coat feels nice and warm. ( = your perception of the coat's qualities) 

b. John's feeling much better now ( = his health is improving) 



a. She has three dogs and a cat. (possession) 

b. She's having supper. (=She's eating) 



a. I can see Anthony in the garden ( = perception) 

b. I'm seeing Anthony later ( = We are planning to meet) 

Examples: 



I wish I was in Greece now. 

She wants to see him now. 

I don't understand why he is shouting. 

I feel we are making a mistake. 

This glass holds half a litre. 



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TENSES 

SIMPLE PAST 

BE CAREFUL! The simple past in English may look like a tense in your own 
language, but the meaning may be different. 

1. Simple past, form 

Regular verbs: base+ed 

e.g. walked, showed, watched, played, smiled, stopped 

Irregular verbs: see list in verbs 
Simple past, be, have, do: 




1 


was 


had 


did 


You 


were 


had 


did 


He, she, it 


was 


had 


did 


We 


were 


had 


did 


You 


were 


had 


did 


They 


were 


had 


did 



Affirmative 

a. I was in J apan last year 

b. She had a headache yesterday. 

c. We did our homework last night. 

Negative and interrogative 

Note: For the negative and interrogative simple past form of "do" as an 
ordinary verb, use the auxiliary "do", e.g. We didn't do our homework last 
night. The negative of "have" in the simple past is usually formed using the 
auxiliary "do", but sometimes by simply adding not or the contraction "n't". 
The interrogative form of "have" in the simple past normally uses the 
auxiliary "do". 

. They weren't in Rio last summer. 

• We hadn't any money. 

. We didn't have time to visit the Eiffel Tower. 

. We didn't do our exercises this morning. 

. Were they in Iceland last J anuary? 

• Did you have a bicycle when you were a boy? 

• Did you do much climbing in Switzerland? 

Simple past, regular verbs 



Affirmative 



Subject 

1 




verb + ed 

washed 




Negative 


Subject 

They 




did not 

didn't 


infinitive without to 

visit ... 


Interrogative 


Did 

Did 




subject 

she 


infinitive without to 

arrive...? 


Interrogative negative 


Did not 

Didn't 




subject 

you 


infinitive without to 

like..? 


Example: to walk, 


Sim pi 


e past. 




Affirmative 


Negative 


Interrogative 1 



I walked 
You walked 

He, she, it walked 

We walked 
You walked 
They walked 



I didn't walk 
You didn't walk 

He didn't walk 
We didn't walk 
You didn't walk 
They didn't walk 



Did I walk? 
Did you walk? 

Did he walk? 
Did we walk? 
Did you walk? 
Did they walk? 



Note: For the negative and interrogative form of all verbs in the simple past, 
always use the auxiliary 'did". 

Examples: Simple past, irregular verbs 

to go 

a. He went to a club last night. 

b. Did he go to the cinema last night? 

c. He didn't go to bed early last night. 

to give 

d. We gave her a doll for her birthday. 

e. They didn't give J ohn their new address. 

f. Did Barry give you my passport? 

to come 

g. My parents came to visit me last J uly. 
h. We didn't come because it was raining, 
i. Did he come to your party last week? 

2. Simple past, function 

The simple past is used to talk about a completed action in a time before 
now. Duration is not important. The time of the action can be in the recent 
past or the distant past. 

• J ohn Cabot sailed to America in 1498. 

• My father died last year. 

• He lived in Fiji in 1976. 

. We crossed the Channel yesterday. 



You always use the simple past when you say when something happened, so 
it is associated with certain past time expressions 



Examples: 




• frequency: 




often, sometimes, always; 




. a definite point in time: 




last week, when 1 was a child, yesterday, six weeks ago. 




. an indefinite point in time: 




the other day, ages ago, a long time ago etc. 




Note: the word ago is a useful way of expressing the distance into the past. 


It is placed after the period of time e.g. a week ago, three 


years ago, a 


minute ago. 




Examples: 




a. Yesterday, 1 arrived in Geneva. 




b. She finished her work at seven o'clock. 




c. We saw a good film last week. 




d. 1 went to the theatre last night. 




e. She played the piano when she was a child. 




f. He sent me a letter six months ago. 




g. Peter left five minutes ago. 




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TENSES 



FUTURE FORMS 

Introduction 

There are a number of different ways of referring to the future in English. It 
is important to remember that we are expressing more than simply the time 
of the action or event. Obviously, any 'future' tense will always refer to a 
time later than now', but it may also express our attitude to the future 
event. 

All of the following ideas can be expressed using different tenses: 

a. Simple prediction 

b. Arrangements 

c. Plans and intentions 

d. Time-tabled events 

e. Prediction based on present evidence 

f. Willingness 

g. An action in progress in the future 

h. An action or event that is a matter of routine 

i. Obligation 

j . An action or event that will take place immediately or very 

soon 

k. Projecting ourselves into the future and looking back at a 

completed action. 

The example sentences below correspond to the ideas above: 

a. There will be snow in many areas tomorrow. 

b. I'm meeting J im at the airport. 

c. We're going to spend the summer abroad. 

d. The plane takes off at 3 a.m. 

e. I think it's going to rain! 

f. We'll give you a lift to the cinema. 

g. This time next week I'll be sun-bathing. 

h. You'll be seeing J ohn in the office tomorrow, won't you? 

i. You are to travel directly to London. 

j . The train is about to leave. 

k. A month from now he will have finished all his exams. 

It is clear from these examples that several tenses are used to express the 
future. The sections that follow show the form and function of each of these 
tenses. 



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TENSES 

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS 

Past perfect continuous, form 

The past perfect continuous is composed of two elements - the past perfect 
of the verb to be (=had been) +the present participle (base-ting). 

Examples: 



Subject 



I 



had been 



had been 



verb-ing 



walking 



Affirmative 


She_ 


had been 


trying 


Negative 


We 


hadn't been 


sleeping 


Interrogative 


Had you 


been 


eating 


Interrogative negative 


Hadn't they 


been 


living 



Example: to buy, past perfect continuous 



Affirmative 


Negative 


Interrogative 


1 had been buying 


1 hadn't been buying 


Had 1 been buying? 


You had been buying 


You hadn't been buying 


Had you been buying 


He, she, it had been buying 


He hadn't been buying 


Had she been buying? 


We had been buying 


We hadn't been buying 


Had we been buying? 


You had been buying 


You hadn't been buying 


Had you been buying 


They had been buying 


They hadn't been buying 


Had they been buying 



Past perfect continuous, function 

The past perfect continuous corresponds to the present perfect continuous, 
but with reference to a time earlier than 'before now'. Again, we are more 
interested in the process. 

Examples: 

a. Had you been waiting long before the taxi arrived? 

b. We had been trying to open the door for five minutes when J ane found 
her key. 

c. It had been raining hard for several hours and the streets were very wet. 

d. Her friends had been thinking of calling the police when she walked in. 



This form is also used in reported speech. It is the equivalent of the past 



continuous and the present perfect continuous in direct speech: 

J ane said "I have been gardening all afternoon." J ane said she had been 
gardening all afternoon. 

When the police questioned him, J ohn said "I was working late in the office 
that night." When the police questioned him, J ohn told them he had 

been working late in the office that night. 

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TENSES 



PAST PERFECT 



Past perfect, form 

The Past Perfect tense in English is composed of two parts: the past tense of 
the verb to have (had) +the past participle of the main verb. 



Subject 


had 


past participle 


We 


had 


decided... 




Affirmative 


She 


had 


given. 


Negative 


We 


hadn't 


asked. 


Interrogative 


Had 


they 


arrived? 


Interrogative negative 


Hadn't 


you 


finished? 


Example: to decide, 


Past perfect 




Affirmative 


Negative 


Interrogative 



I had decided 
You had decided 
He, she, it had decided 
We had decided 
You had decided 
They had decided 



I hadn't decided 
You hadn't decided 
He hadn't decided 
We hadn't decided 
You hadn't decided 
They hadn't decided 



Had I decided? 
Had you decided? 
Had she decided? 
Had we decided? 
Had you decided? 
Had they decided? 



Past perfect, function 

The past perfect refers to a time earlier than before now. It is used to make 
it clear that one event happened before another in the past. It does not 
matter which event is mentioned first - the tense makes it clear which one 
happened first. 

In these examples, Event A is the first or earliest event, Event B is the 
second or latest event: 



H 


J ohn had gone out 


when 1 arrived in the office. 




Event A 


Event B 




1 had saved my document 


before the computer crashed. 


H 


Event A 


Event B 




When they arrived 


we had already started cooking 


H 


Event B 


Event A 



He was very tired because he hadn't slept well. 

Event B Event A 



Past perfect +just 

'J ust' is used with the past perfect to refer to an event that was only a short 

time earlier than before now, e.g. 

a. The train had just left when I arrived at the station. 

b. She had just left the room when the police arrived. 

c. I had just put the washing out when it started to rain. 



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TENSES 

SIMPLE FUTURE 

Simple future, form 

The 'simple' future is composed of two parts: will / shall +the infinitive 
without 'to' 



Subject 



He 



will 



infinitive without to 



leave... 



Affirmative 


1 
1 


will 
shall 


go 
go 


Negative 


They 
They 


will not 
won't 


see 
see 


Interrogative 


Will 


she 


ask? 


Interrogative 
negative 


Won't 


she 


take? 



Contractions: 



I will — I'll 

You will - you'll 

He,she, will he'll, she'll 



We will we'll 

You will - you'll 
They will they'll 



NOTE: The form 'it will' is not normally shortened. 
Example: to see, simple future 



Affirmative 


Negative 


Interrogative 


I'll see 


1 won't see/ 


Will 1 see?/ 


*l will/shall see 


1 shan't see 


Shall 1 see? 


You'll see 


You won't see 


Will you see? 


He, she, it will see 


He won't see 


Will she see? 


We'll see 


We won't see/ 


Will we see?/ 


*We will/ shall see 


We shan't see 


Shall we see? 


You will see 


You won't see 


Will you see? 


They'll see 


They won't see 


Will they see? 



*NOTE: shall is slightly dated but can be used instead of will with I / we. 

Simple future, function 

The simple future refers to a time later than now, and expresses facts or 
certainty. In this case there is no 'attitude'. 

The simple future is used: 

a. to predict a future event: It will rain tomorrow. 

b. (with l/we) to express a spontaneous decision: I'll pay for the tickets by 
credit card. 

c. to express willingness: I'll do the washing-up. He'll carry your bag for 
you. 

d. (in the negative form) to express unwillingness: The baby won't eat his 
soup. I won't leave until I've seen the manager! 

e. (with I in the interrogative form) to make an offer: Shall I open the 

window? 

f. (with we in the interrogative form) to make a suggestion: Shall we go to 
the cinema tonight? 

g. (with I in the interrogative form) to ask for advice or instructions: What 
shall I tell the boss about this money? 

h. (with you) to give orders: You will do exactly as I say. 

i. (with you) to give an invitation: Will you come to the dance with me? 
Will you marry me? 

NOTE: In modern English will is preferred to shall. 

Shall is mainly used with I and we to make an offer or suggestion (see 
examples (e) and (f) above, or to ask for advice (example (g) above). 
With the other persons (you, he, she, they) shall is only used in literary or 
poetic situations, e.g. 

"With rings on her fingers and bells on her toes, She shall have music 
wherever she goes." 

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TENSES 



PAST CONTINUOUS 



1. Past continuous - form. 

The past continuous of any verb is composed of two parts : the past tense of 
the verb to be (was/ were), and the base of the main verb -Hng. 



Subject 



They 



was/were 



were 



base-ing 



watching 



Affirmative 


She 


was 


reading 


Negative 


She 


wasn't 


reading 


Interrogative 


Was 


she 


reading? 


Interrogative negative 


Wasn't 


she 


reading? 



Example: to play, past continuous 



Affirmative 


Negative 


Interrogative 


1 was playing 


1 was not playing 


Was 1 playing? 


You were playing 


You were not playing 


Were you playing? 


He, she, it was playing 


She wasn't playing 


Was she playing? 


We were playing 


We weren't playing 


Were we playing? 


You were playing 


You weren't playing 


Were you playing? 


They were playing 


They weren't playing 


Were they playing? 



2. Past continuous, function 

The past continuous describes actions or events in a time before now, which 
began in the past and was still going on at the time of speaking. In other 
words, it expresses an unfinished or incomplete action in the past. 

It is used: 



often, to describe the background in a story written in the past tense, 
e.g. "The sun was shining and the birds were singing as the elephant 
came out of the jungle. The other animals were relaxing in the 
shade of the trees, but the elephant moved very quickly. She was 
looking for her baby, and she didn't notice the hunter who was 
watching her through his binoculars. When the shot rang out, she was 
running towards the river..." 

to describe an unfinished action that was interrupted by another 
event or action: "I was having a beautiful dream when the alarm 



clock rang." 

. to express a change of mind: e.g. "I was going to spend the day at 
the beach but I've decided to go on an excursion instead." 

. with 'wonder', to make a very polite request: e.g. "I was wondering if 
you could baby-sit for me tonight." 

More examples: 

a. They were waiting for the bus when the accident 
happened. 

b. Caroline was skiing when she broke her leg. 

c. When we arrived he was having a bath. 

d. When the fire started I was watching television. 

Note: with verbs not normally used in the continuous form, the simple past is 
used. See list in Present continuous 



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TENSES 



PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS 



Present perfect continuous, form 

The present perfect continuous is made up of two elements: (a) the present 
perfect of the verb 'to be' (have/ has been), and (b) the present participle of 
the main verb (base-ring). 



Subject 



She 



has/have been 



has been 



base+ing 



swimming 



Affirmative 


She has been / She's 


been 


running 


Negative, 


She hasn't been 




running 


Interrogative 


Has she been 




running? 


Interrogative negative 


Hasn't she been 




running? 



Example: to live, present perfect continuous 



Affirmative 


Negative 


Interrogative 


1 have been living 


1 haven't been living 


Have 1 been living? 


You have been living 


You haven't been living 


Have you been living? 


He, she, it has been living 


He hasn't been living 


Has she been living? 


We have been living 


We haven't been living 


Have we been living? 


You have been living 


You haven't been living 


Have you been living? 


They have been living 


They haven't been living 


Have they been living? 



Present perfect continuous, function 

The present perfect continuous refers to an unspecified time between 
'before now' and 'now'. The speaker is thinking about something that started 
but perhaps did not finish in that period of time. He/ she is interested in the 
process as well as the result, and this process may still be going on, or may 
have iust finished. 



Examples: 

1. Actions that started in the past and continue in the present. 

a. She has been waiting for you all day (=and she's still waiting now). 

b. I've been working on this report since eight o'clock this morning (=and I 
still haven't finished it). 



c. They have been travelling since last October (=and they're not home 
yet). 

2. Actions that have just finished, but we are interested in the results: 

a. She has been cooking since last night (=and the food on the table looks 
delicious). 

b. It's been raining (=and the streets are still wet). 

c. Someone's been eating my chips ( = half of them have gone). 
Note: 

Verbs without continuous forms 

With verbs not normally used in the continuous form, use the present perfect 
simple. See list of these verbs under 'Present Continuous': 

. I've wanted to visit China for years. 

. She's known Robert since she was a child. 

• I've hated that music since I first heard it. 

. I've heard a lot about you recently. 

. We've understood everything we've heard this morning. 

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TENSES 

PRESENT PERFECT + f or, since 

Using the present perfect, we can define a period of time before now by 
considering its duration, with for + a period of time, or by considering its 
starting point, with since + a point in time. 

For + a period of time: 

for six years, for a week, for a month, for hours, for two 

hours. 

I have worked here for five years. 

Since + a point in time: 

since this morning, since last week, since yesterday, 
since I was a child, since Wednesday, since 2 o'clock. 
I have worked here since 1990. 



More examples: 

present perfect with for: 

a. She has lived here for twenty years. 

b. We have taught at this school for a long time. 

c. Alice has been married for three months. 

d. They have been at the hotel for a week. 

present perfect with since: 

a. She has lived here since 1980. 

b. We have taught at this school since 1965. 

c. Alice has been married since March 2nd. 

d. They have been at the hotel since last Tuesday. 

Note: 

1. For and since can both be used with the past perfect. 

2. Since can only be used with perfect tenses, for can also be used with the 
simple past. 



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TENSES 

PRESENT PERFECT OR SIMPLE PAST? 

Always use the present perfect when the time is not important, or not 
specified. 

Always use the simple past when details about the time or place are 
specified or asked for. 

Compare: 



Present perfect 



I have lived in Lyon. 
They have eaten Thai food. 
Have you seen 'Othello 1 ?. 
We have been to Ireland. 



Simple past 



I lived in Lyon in 1989. 
They ate Thai food last night. 
Where did you see 'Othello? 
When did you go to Ireland? 



There is also a difference of attitude that is often more important than the 
time factor. 



"What did you do at school today?" is a question about activities, and 
considers the school day as finished. 

"What have you done at school today?" is a question about results - "show 
me", and regards the time of speaking as a continuation of the school day. 



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TENSES 

PRESENT CONTINUOUS FOR FUTURE EVENTS 

1. Present continuous for the future, form 

See notes on form in section on Present Continuous. 



Subject 



She 



+ to be 



is 



+ base-ing 



meeting 



2. Future: Present continuous for the future, function 

The present continuous is used to talk about arrangements for events at a 
time later than now. 

There is a suggestion that more than one person is aware of the event, and 
that some preparation has already happened, e.g. 

a. I'm meeting J im at the airport =and both J im and I have discussed this. 

b. I am leaving tomorrow. =and I've already bought my train ticket. 

c. We're having a staff meeting next Monday =and all members of staff have 
been told about it. 

More examples: 

a. Is she seeing him tomorrow? 

b. He isn't working next week. 

c. They aren't leaving until the end of next year. 

d. We are staying with friends when we get to Boston. 

Note: in example (a), seeing is used in a continuous form because it means 
meeting. 

BE CAREFUL! The simple present is used when a future event is part of a 
programme or time-table. Notice the difference between: 

a. We're having a staff meeting next Monday. 

b. We have a staff meeting next Monday. ( = we have a meeting every 
Monday, it's on the time-table.) 



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TENSES 

PRESENT PERFECT 

1. Present perfect - form 

The present perfect of any verb is composed of two elements : the 
appropriate form of the auxiliary verb to have (present tense), plus the past 
participle of the main verb. The past participle of a regular verb is base+ed, 
e.g. played, arrived, looked. For irregular verbs, see the Table of irregular 
verbs in the section called 'Verbs'. 



Affirmative 


Subject to have 
She has 


past participle 
visited 


Negative, 


Subject to have +not 
She hasn't 


past participle 
visited 


Interrogative, 


to have subject 
Has she 


past participle 
visited..? 


Interrogative negative 


to have +not subject 
Hasn't she 


past participle 
visited...? 


Example: to walk, present perfect 


Affirmative Negative 


Interrogative 



I have walked 
You have walked 
He, she, it has walked 
We have walked 
You have walked 
They have walked 



I haven't walked 
You haven't walked 
He, she, it hasn't walked 
We haven't walked 
You haven't walked 
They haven't walked 



Have I walked? 
Have you walked? 
Has he, she, it walked 
Have we walked? 
Have you walked? 
Have they walked? 



2. Present perfect, function 

The Present Perfect is used to indicate a link between the present and the 
past. The time of the action is before now but not specified, and we are 
often more interested in the result than in the action itself. 

BE CAREFUL! There may be a verb tense in your language with a similar 
form, but the meaning is probably NOT the same. 

The present perfect is used to describe: 



l.An action or situation that started in the past and continues in the present. 
Example: I have lived in Bristol since 1984 ( = and I still do.) 



2. An action performed during a period that has not yet finished. Example: 
She has been to the cinema twice this week ( = and the week isn't over yet.) 

3. A repeated action in an unspecified period between the past and now. 
Example: We have visited Portugal several times. 

4. An action that was completed in the very recent past, (expressed by 
'just'). Example: I have just finished my work. 

5. An action when the time is not important. Example: He has read 'War and 
Peace', (the result of his reading is important) 

Note: When we want to give or ask details about when, where, who, we use 
the simple past . Example: He read 'War and Peace' last week. 

Examples: 

1. Actions started in the past and continuing in the present. 

a. They haven't lived here for years. 

b. She has worked in the bank for five years. 

c. We have had the same car for ten years. 

d. Have you played the piano since you were a child? 

2. When the time period referred to has not finished. 

a. I have worked hard this week. 

b. It has rained a lot this year. 

c. We haven't seen her today. 

3. Actions repeated in an unspecified period between the past and now. 

a. They have seen that film six times. 

b. It has happened several times already. 

c. She has visited them frequently. 

d. We have eaten at that restaurant many times. 

4. Actions completed in the very recent past (+just). 

a. Have you just finished work? 

b. I have just eaten. 

c. We have just seen her. 

d. Has he just left? 

5. When the precise time of the action is not important or not known. 

a. Someone has eaten my soup! 

b. Have you seen 'Gone with the Wind'? 

c. She's studied J apanese, Russian and English. 

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IF 1 SENTENCES AND THE UNREAL 1 PAST 

In this section you will find information on sentences containing the word 'if, 
the use of conditional tenses, and the 'unreal past', that is, when we use a 
past tense but we are not actually referring to past time. 

IF AND THE CONDITIONAL 

There are four main types of 'if sentences in English: 

1. The 'zero' conditional , where the tense in both parts of the sentence is 
the simple present: 



'IF' CLAUSE 



If + simple present 

If you heat ice 
If it rains 



MAIN CLAUSE 



simple present 

it melts, 
you get wet 



In these sentences, the time is now or always and the situation is real and 
possible. They are often used to refer to general truths. 

2. The Type 1 conditional , where the tense in the 'if clause is the simple 
present, and the tense in the main clause is the simple future 



'IF' CLAUSE 



If + simple present 

If it rains 

If you don't hurry 



MAIN CLAUSE 



Simple future 

you will get wet 

we will miss the train. 



In these sentences, the time is the present or future and the situation is 
real. They refer to a possible condition and its probable result. 

3. The Type 2 conditional , where the tense in the 'if clause is the simple 
past, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional: 



'IF' CLAUSE 



If + simple past 

If it rained 

If you went to bed earlier 



MAIN CLAUSE 



Present conditional 

you would get wet 

you wouldn't be so tired. 



In these sentences, the time is now or any time, and the situation is unreal. 
They are not based on fact, and they refer to an unlikely or hypothetical 
condition and its probable result. 



4. The Type 3 conditional , where the tense in the 'if clause is the past 
perfect, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional: 











'IF' CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE 


to reality. 

, and they 

mixed. The 
in clause is 

in the 
ble result 


If + past perfect Perfect conditional 

If it had rained you would have got wet 

If you had worked harder you would have passed the exam. 

n these sentences, the time is past, and the situation is contrary 
The facts they are based on are the opposite of what is expressed 
refer to an unreal past condition and its probable past result. 

A further type if 'if sentence exists, where Type 2 and Type 3 are 
tense in the 'if clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the ma 
the present conditional: 


'IF' CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE 


If + past perfect Present conditional 

If 1 had worked harder at 1 would have a better j ob now. 
school we wouldn't be lost. 
If we had looked at the map 

n these sentences, the time is past in the 'if clause, and present 
main clause. They refer to an unreal past condition and its proba 
n the present. 

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TYPE 1 CONDITIONAL 

1. Form 

In a Type 1 conditional sentence, the tense in the 'if clause is the simple 
present, and the tense in the main clause is the simple future 



'IF' CLAUSE (CONDITION) 



If + simple present 

If it rains 

If you don't hurry 



MAIN CLAUSE (RESULT) 



Simple future 

you will get wet 

we will miss the train. 



2. Function 

In these sentences, the time is the present or future and the situation is 
real. They refer to a possible condition and its probable result. They are 
based on facts, and they are used to make statements about the real world, 
and about particular situations. We often use such sentences to give 
warnings: 

• If you don't leave, I'll call the police. 
. If you don't drop the gun, I'll shoot! 

Examples: 

• If you drop that glass, it will break. 

• Nobody will notice if you make a mistake. 
. If I have time, I'll finish that letter. 

. What will you do if you miss the plane? 

NOTE: We can use modals to express the degree of certainty of the result: 

• If you drop that glass, it might break. 

• I may finish that letter if I have time. 



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TYPE 2 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 
1. Form 

In a Type 2 conditional sentence, the tense in the 'if clause is the simple 
past, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional: 



'IF' CLAUSE 



MAIN CLAUSE 



If + simple past Present conditional 

If it rained you would get wet 

If you went to bed earlier you wouldn't be so tired. 

Present conditional, form 

The present conditional of any verb is composed of two parts - the modal 
auxiliary would +the infinitive of the main verb (without 'to'.) 



Subject would 


infinitive without to 


She would 


learn 


Affirmative 


1 would 


go 


Negative 


1 wouldn't 


ask 


Interrogative 


Would she 


come? 


Interrogative negative 


H 


Wouldn't t 


hey 


accept? 



Would: Contractions of would 



In spoken English, would is contracted to 'd. 



I'd 


We'd 


you'd 


you'd 


he'd, she'd 


they'd 



The negative contraction =wouldn't. 
Example: to accept, Present conditional 



Affirmative 



Negative, 



Interrogative, 



I would accept I wouldn't accept Would I accept? 



You would accept 


You wouldn't 
accept 


Would you accept? 


He would accept 


She wouldn't 
accept 


Would he accept? 


We would accept 


We wouldn't 
accept 


Would we accept? 


You would accept 


You wouldn't 
accept 


Would you accept? 


They would accept 


They wouldn't 
accept 


Would they accept? 



2. Function 

In these sentences, the time is now or any time, and the situation is unreal. 
They are not based on fact, and they refer to an unlikely or hypothetical 
condition and its probable result. The use of the past tense after 'if 
indicates unreality. We can nearly always add a phrase starting with "but", 
that expresses the real situation: 

• If the weather wasn't so bad, we would go to the park (...but it is 
bad, so we can't go) 

• If I was the Queen of England, I would give everyone £100. (...but 
I'm not, so I won't) 

Examples of use: 

1. To make a statement about something that is not real at present, but is 
possible: 

I would visit her if I had time. (=1 haven't got time but I might have some 
time) 

2. To make a statement about a situation that is not real now and never 
could be real: 

If I were you, I'd give up smoking (but I could never be you) 

Examples: 

a. If I was a plant, I would love the rain. 

b. If you really loved me, you would buy me a diamond ring. 

c. If I knew where she lived, I would go and see her. 

d. You wouldn't need to read this if you understood English grammar. 

e. Would he go to the concert if I gave him a ticket? 

f. They wouldn't invite her if they didn't like her 

g. We would be able to buy a larger house if we had more money 

NOTE: It is correct, and very common, to say "If I were" instead of "If I was". 

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TYPE 3 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 

1. Form 

In a Type 3 conditional sentence, the tense in the 'if clause is the past 
perfect, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional: 



'IF' CLAUSE 


MAIN CLAUSE 


If + past perfect 


Perfect conditional 


If it had rained 


you would have got wet 


If you had worked harder 


you would have passed the 




exam. 



Perfect conditional - form 

The perfect conditional of any verb is composed of two elements: would + 
the perfect infinitive of the main verb (=have +past participle): 



Subject 


would 


perfect infinitive 


He 
They 


would 
would 


have gone... 
have stayed... 


Affirmative 


1 


would 


have believed ... 


Negative 


She 


wouldn't 


have given... 


Interrogative 


Would 


you 


have left...? 


Interrogative 
negative. 




Wouldn't 


he 


have been...? 


Example: to go, P; 


ast conditional 




Affirmative 


Negative 


Interrogative 



I would have gone 
You would have gone 
He would have gone 
We would have gone 
You would have gone 



I wouldn't have gone 
You wouldn't have gone 
She wouldn't have gone 
We wouldn't have gone 
You wouldn't have gone 



Would I have gone? 
Would you have gone? 
Would it have gone? 
Would we have gone? 
Would you have gone? 



They would have gone They wouldn't have gone Would they have gone? 



In these sentences, the time is past, and the situation is contrary to 
reality. The facts they are based on are the opposite of what is expressed. 

Type 3 conditional sentences, are truly hypothetical or unreal, because it is 
now too late for the condition or its result to exist. There is always an 
unspoken "but..." phrase: 



• If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam 
(but I didn't work hard, and I didn't pass the exam). 



• If I'd known you were coming I'd have baked a cake 
(but I didn't know, and I haven't baked a cake). 

NOTE: Both would and had can be contracted to 'd, which can be confusing. 
Remember that you NEVER use would in the IF-clause, so in the example 
above, "If I'd known" must be "If I had known", and "I'd have baked" must be "I 
would have baked.." 

Examples: 

a. If I'd known you were in hospital, I would have visited you. 

b. I would have bought you a present if I'd known it was your birthday. 

c. If they'd had a better goalkeeper they wouldn't have lost the game. 

d. If you had told me you were on the Internet, I'd have sent you an e-mail. 

e. Would you have bought an elephant if you'd known how much they eat? 

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TENSES 

SIMPLE PRESENT 

(See also Verbs -'Regular verbs in the simple present 1 ) 

Simple present, third person singular 

Note: 

1. he, she, it: in the third person singular the verb always ends in -s: 

he wants, she needs, he gives, she thinks. 

2. Negative and question forms use DOES (=the third person of the 
auxiliary'DO') +the infinitive of the verb. 

He wants. Does he want? He does not want. 

3. Verbs ending in -y : the third person changes the -y to -ies: 
fly flies, cry » cries 

Exception: if there is a vowel before the -y: 
play —• plays, pray prays 

4. Add -es to verbs ending in:-ss, -x, -sh, -ch: 

he passes, she catches, he fixes, it pushes 

See also Verbs -'Regular verbs in the simple present', and 'Be, do & have' 

Examples: 

1. Third person singular with s or -es 

a. He goes to school every morning. 

b. She understands English. 

c. It mixes the sand and the water. 

d. He tries very hard. 

e. She enjoys playing the piano. 

2. Simple present, form 
Example: to think, present simple 



Affirmative 


Interrogative 


Negative 


1 think 


Do 1 think? 


1 do not think. 


You think 


Do you think? 


You don't think. 


he, she, it thinks 


Does he, she, it think? 


He, she, it doesn't think. 


we think 


Do we think? 


We don't think. 


you think 


Do you think? 


You don't think. 



The simple present is used: 



1. 


to express habits, general truths, repeated actions or unchanging 
situations, emotions and wishes: 

1 smoke (habit); 1 work in London (unchanging situation); London is a 
large city (general truth) 


2. 


to give instructions or directions: 

You walk for two hundred metres, then you turn left. 


3. 


to express fixed arrangements, present or future: 
Your exam starts at 09.00 


4. 


to express future time, after some conjunctions: after, when, 
before, as soon as, until: 

He'll give it to you when you come next Saturday. 


BE CAREFUL! The simple present is not used to express actions happening 
now. See Present Continuous. 


Examples: 


1. 


For habits 

He drinks tea at breakfast. 

She only eats fish. 

They watch television regularly. 


2. 


For repeated actions or events 

We catch the bus every morning. 

It rains every afternoon in the hot season. 

They drive to Monaco every summer. 


3. 


For general truths 
Water freezes at zero degrees. 
The Earth revolves around the Sun. 
Her mother is Peruvian. 


4. 


For instructions or directions 

Open the packet and pour the contents into hot water. 

You take the No. 6 bus to Watney and then the No. 10 to Bedford. 


5. 


For fixed arrangements 

His mother arrives tomorrow. 

Our holiday starts on the 26th March 


6. 


With future constructions 

She'll see you before she leaves. 
We'll give it to her when she arrives. 




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TENSES 

SUMMARY OF VERB TENSES 

Present tenses 

Simple present : She wants a drink. 

Present continuous : They are walking home. 

Past tenses 

Simple past : Peter lived in China in 1965. 

Past continuous : I was reading when she arrived. 

Perfect tenses 

Present Perfect : I have lived here since 1987. 

Present perfect continuous : I have been living here for years. 

Past perfect : We had been to see her several times before she visited us. 

Past perfect continuous : He had been watching her for some time when she 

turned and smiled. 

Future perfect : We will have arrived in the States by the time you get this 

letter. 

Future perfect continuous : By the end of your course, you will have been 

studying for five years. 

Future tenses 

Simple future : They will go to Italy next week. 
Future continuous : I will be travelling by train. 

Conditional tenses 

Present conditional: If he had the money he would go 

Present continuous conditional: He would be getting up now if he was in 

Australia. 

Perfect conditional: She would have visited me if she had had time. 

Perfect continuous conditional: I would have been playing tennis if I hadn't 

broken my arm. 

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TENSES 



FUTURE PERFECT 



Future perfect, form 

The future perfect is composed of two elements: the simple future of the 
verb to have (will have) +the past participle of the main verb: 



Subject 



He 



will have 



will have 



past participle 



finished 



Affirmative 

I will have left 

Negative 

They won't have gone 

Interrogative 

Will we have seen? 

Interrogative negative 

Won't he have arrived? 



Example: to arrive, future perfect 



Affirmative 



111 have arrived 
You'll have arrived 
He'll have arrived 
We'll have arrived 
You'll have arrived 



Negative 



I won't have arrived 
You won't have arrived 
She won't have arrived 
We won't have arrived 
You won't have arrived 



Interrogative 



They'll have arrived They won't have arrived 



Wi 
Wi 
Wi 
Wi 
Wi 
Wi 



I have arrived? 
you have arrived? 
it have arrived? 
we have arrived? 
you have arrived? 
they have arrived? 



Future perfect, function 

The future perfect refers to a completed action in the future. When we use 
this tense we are projecting ourselves forward into the future and looking 
back at an action that will be completed some time later than now. 
It is often used with a time expression using by +a point in future time. 

Examples: 

a. I'll have been here for six months on J une 23rd. 

b. By the time you read this I'll have left. 

c. You will have finished your work by this time next week. 



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TENSES 



FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS 



Future perfect continuous, form 

This form is composed of two elements: the future perfect of the verb to be 
(will have been) +the present participle of the main verb (base-ring): 



Subject 


will have been 


base+ing 


We 


will have been 


living 




Affirmative 


1 


will have been 


working 


Negative 


1 


won't have been 


working 


Interrogative 


Will 


1 have been 


working? 


Interrogative negative 


Won't 


1 have been 


working? 


Example: to live, 


Future Perfect continuous 


Affirmative 


Negative 


Interrogative 



111 have been living I won't have been living Will I have been living? 

You'll have been You won't have been living Will you have been 

living living? 

He'll have been living He won't have been living Will she have been 

living? 

We'll have been we won't have been living Will we have been 

living living? 

You'll have been You won't have been living Will you have been 

living living? 

They'll have been They won't have been Will they have been 

living living living? 

Future perfect continuous, function 

Like the future perfect simple, this form is used to proj ect ourselves forward 
in time and to look back. It refers to events or actions in a time between 
now and some future time, that may be unfinished. 

Examples: 

a. I will have been waiting here for three hours by six o'clock. 

b. By 2001 I will have been living here for sixteen years. 

c. By the time I finish this course, I will have been learning English for twenty 
years. 

d. Next year I will have been working here for four years. 



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TENSES 



FUTURE CONTINUOUS 



Future continuous, form 

The future continuous is made up of two elements: the simple future of the 
verb 'to be' +the present participle (base-ring) 



Subject simple future, 'to be' base+ing 



You 



will be 



watching 



Affirmative 

I will be asking 

Negative 

She won't be leaving 

Interrogative 

Will they be retiring? 

Interrogative negative 

Won't we be staying? 

Example: to stay, future continuous 



Affirmative 


Negative 


Interrogative 


1 will be staying 


1 won't be staying 


Will 1 be staying? 


You will be staying 


You won't be staying 


Will you be staying? 


He, she, it will be staying 


He won't be staying 


Will she be staying? 


We will be staying 


We won't be staying 


Will we be staying? 


You will be staying 


You won't be staying 


Will you be staying? 


They will be staying 


They won't be staying 


Will they be staying? 



Future continuous, function 

The future continuous refers to an unfinished action or event that will be in 
progress at a time later than now. It is used: 

a. to project ourselves into the future and see something happening: This 
time next week I will be sun-bathing in Bali. 

b. to refer to actions/ events that will happen in the normal course of events: 
I'll be seeing J im at the conference next week. 

c. in the interrogative form, especially with 'you', to distinguish between a 
simple request for information and an invitation: Will you be coming to the 
party tonight? ( = request for information) Will you come to the party? (= 
invitation) 



d. to predict or guess about someone's actions or feelings, now or in the 



future: You'll be feeling tired after that long walk, I expect. 
More examples: 

a. events in progress in the future: 

When you are in Australia will you be staying with friends? 
This time next week you will be working in your new j ob. 
At four thirty on Tuesday afternoon I will be signing the 

contract. 

b. events/ actions in normal course of events: 

I'll be going into town this afternoon, is there anything you 
want from the shops? 

Will you be using the car tomorrow? - No, you can take it. 
I'll be seeing J ane this evening - I'll give her the message. 

c. asking for information: 

Will you be bringing your friend to the pub tonight? 
Will J im be coming with us? 

d. predicting or guessing: 

You'll be feeling thirsty after working in the sun. 

He'll be coming to the meeting, I expect. 

You'll be missing the sunshine now you're back in England. 

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TENSES 

PRESENT PERFECT + ever, never, already, yet 

The adverbs ever and never express the idea of an unidentified time before 
now e.g. Have you ever visited Berlin? 

'Ever' is used 

a. in questions, e.g. 

Have you ever been to England? 
Has she ever met the Prime Minister? 

b. in negative questions e.g. 
Haven't they ever been to Europe? 
Haven't you ever eaten Chinese food? 

c. and in negative statements using the pattern 

nothing ever, nobody ever e.g. 

Nobody has ever said that to me before. 
Nothing like this has ever happened to us. 

d. 'Ever' is also used with 'The first time.... e.g. 
It's the first time (that) I've ever eaten snails. 
This is the first time I've ever been to England. 



'Never' means at no time before now, and is the same as not 
I have never visited Berlin 



ever: 



BE CAREFUL! 

You must not use never and not together: 

I hav e n't n e v e r b ee n to I ta l y. 
I have never been to Italy. 

Position: 'Ever' and 'never' are always placed before the 
main verb (past participle). 

Already and yet: 

Already refers to an action that has happened at an unspecified time before 
now. It suggests that there is no need for repetition, e.g. 

a. I've already drunk three coffees this morning, (and you're offering me 
another one!) 

b. Don't write to J ohn, I've already done it. 

It is also used in questions: 

a. Have you already written to J ohn? 

b. Has she finished her homework already? 



Position: already can be placed before the main verb (past 
participle) or at the end of the sentence: 



a. I have already been to Tokyo. 

b. I have been to Tokyo already. 

yet is used in negative statements and questions, to mean (not) in the period 
of time between before now and now, (not) up to and including the present, 
e.g. 

a. Have you met J udy yet? 

b. I haven't visited the Tate Gallery yet. 

c. Has he arrived yet? 

d. They haven't eaten yet. 

Position: Yet is usually placed at the end of the sentence. 

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TENSES 

Introduction 

It is important to understand the meaning and use of tenses in English. The 
form may be like that of a tense in your own language, but the meaning may 
be different, so be very careful! 

Summary of Verb Tenses 

Present tenses 

Simple present 
Present continuous 

Past tenses 

Simple past 
Past continuous 

Perfect tenses 

Present Perfect 

Present perfect continuous 

Past perfect 

Past perfect continuous 

Future perfect 

Future perfect continuous 

Future tenses 

Simple future 
Future continuous 

Conditional tenses 

Present conditional 

Present continuous conditional 

Perfect conditional 

Perfect continuous conditional 



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UNREAL PAST 

The past tense is sometimes used in English to refer to an 'unreal' situation. 
So, although the tense is the past, we are usually talking about the present, 
e.g. in a Type 2 conditional sentence: 

If an elephant and a mouse fell in love, they would have many problems. 

Although fell is in the past tense, we are talking about a hypothetical 
situation that might exist now or at any time, but we are not referring to the 
past. We call this use the unreal past. 

Other situations where this occurs are: 

• after other words and expressions like 'if (supposing, if only, what 

if); 

• after the verb to wish'; 

• after the expression I'd rather..' 

Expressions like if 

The following expressions can be used to introduce hypothetical situations: 
- supposing, if only, what if. They are followed by a past tense to indicate 
that the condition they introduce is unreal: 

Supposing an elephant and a mouse fell in love? (=but we know this is unlikely or 

impossible) 

What if we painted the room purple? ( = that would be very surprising) 

If only I had more money. ( = but I haven't). 

These expressions can also introduce hypothetical situations in the past and 
then they are followed by the past perfect. 

Examples: 

• If only I hadn't kissed the frog ( = 1 did and it was a mistake because 
he turned into a horrible prince, but I can't change it now.) 

• What if the elephant had trodden on the mouse? (She didn't, but we 
can imagine the result!) 

• Supposing I had given that man my money! (I didn't, so I've still got 
my money now.) 

The verb to wish 

The verb to wish is followed by an 'unreal' past tense when we want to talk 
about situations in the present that we are not happy about but cannot 
change: 



• I wish I had more money (=but I haven't) 

• She wishes she was beautiful ( = but she's not) 

• We wish we could come to your party (but we can't) 



When we want to talk about situations in the past that we are not happy 
about or actions that we regret, we use the verb to wish followed by the 
past perfect: 

. I wish I hadn't said that (=but I did) 

• He wishes he hadn't bought the car ( = but he did buy it.) 

• I wish I had taken that job in New York ( = but I didn't, so I'm stuck in 
Bristol) 

NOTE: When we want to talk about situations we are not happy about and 
where we want someone else to change them, we use to wish followed by 
would + infinitive: 

• I wish he would stop smoking. ( = 1 don't like it, I want him to change 
it) 

• I wish you would go away. ( = 1 don't want you here, I want you to 
take some action) 

• I wish you wouldn't squeeze the toothpaste from the middle! ( = 1 
want you to change your habits.) 

I'd rather and it's time... 

These two expressions are also followed by an unreal past. The verb is in the 
past tense, but the situation is in the present. 

When we want to talk about a course of action we would prefer someone 
else to take, we use I'd rather + past tense: 

. I'd rather you went 

• He'd rather you called the police 

• I'd rather you didn't hunt elephants. 

NOTE: the stress can be important in these sentences, to show what our 
preference is: 

• I'd rather you went =not me, 

• I'd rather you went = don't stay 

• He'd rather you called the police =he doesn't want to 

. He'd rather you called the police =not the ambulance service 

Similarly, when we want to say that now is a suitable moment to do 
something, either for ourselves or for someone else, we use it's time + past 
tense: 

• It's (high) time I went. 

• It's time you paid that bill. 

• Don't you think it's time you had a haircut? 

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UNLESS 



Unless means the same as if... not. Like if, it is followed by a present tense, a 
past tense or a past perfect (never by 'would'). It is used instead of if +not 
in conditional sentences of all types: 



Type 1: (Unless + present) 



a. You'll be sick unless you stop eating. ( = You will be sick if you 
don't stop eating) 

b. I won't pay unless you provide the goods immediately. ( = lf 
you don't provide them I won't pay) 

c. You'll never understand English unless you study this grammar 
carefully. ( = You'll never understand if you don't study...) 



Type 2: (Unless + past) 



a. Unless he was very ill, he would be at work. 

b. I wouldn't eat that food unless I was really hungry. 

c. She would be here by now unless she was stuck in the traffic. 



Type 3: (Unless + past perfect) 



a. The elephant wouldn't have seen the mouse unless she'd had 
perfect eyesight. 

b. I wouldn't have phoned him unless you'd suggested it. 

c. They would have shot her unless she'd given them the 
money. 



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MIXED CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 



It is possible for the two parts of a conditional sentence to refer to different 
times, and the resulting sentence is a "mixed conditional" sentence. There 
are two types of mixed conditional sentence: 

A. Present result of past condition: 

1. Form 

The tense in the 'if clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the main 
clause is the present conditional: 



'IF' CLAUSE 


MAIN CLAUSE 


If + past perfect 


Present conditional 


If 1 had worked harder at 


1 would have a better job now. 


school 


we wouldn't be lost. 


If we had looked at the map 





2. Function 

In these sentences, the time is past in the 'if clause, and present in the 

main clause. They refer to an unreal past condition and its probable result 

in the present. They express a situation which is contrary to reality both in 

the past and in the present: 

'If I had worked harder at school' is contrary to past fact - I didn't work hard 

at school, and 'I would have a better job now' is contrary to present fact - 1 

haven't got a good job. 

If we had looked at the map (we didn't), we wouldn't be lost (we are lost). 

Examples: 

• I would be a millionaire now if I had taken that job. 

• If you'd caught that plane you'd be dead now. 

• If you hadn't spent all your money on CDs, you wouldn't be broke. 

B. Past result of present or continuing condition. 

1. Form 

The tense in the If-clause is the simple past, and the tense in the main 
clause is the perfect conditional: 



'IF' CLAUSE 



If + simple past 

If I wasn't afraid of 

spiders 

If we didn't trust him 



MAIN CLAUSE 



Perfect conditional 

I would have picked it up. 

we would have sacked him months 

ago. 



2. Function 

In these sentences the time in the If-clause is now or always, and the time 
in the main clause is before now. They refer to an unreal present situation 
and its probable (but unreal) past result: 



'If I wasn't afraid of spiders' is contrary to present reality - 1 am afraid of spiders, 
and 1 would have picked it up' is contrary to past reality - I didn't pick it up. 



'If we didn't trust him' is contrary to present reality - we do trust him, and 'we 
would have sacked him' is contrary to past reality - we haven't sacked him. 

Examples: 

a. If she wasn't afraid of flying she wouldn't have travelled by boat. 

b. I'd have been able to translate the letter if my Italian was better. 

c. If I was a good cook, I'd have invited them to lunch. 

d. If the elephant wasn't in love with the mouse, she'd have trodden on him 

by now. 



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PERFECT CONDITIONAL, CONTINUOUS 

1. Perfect conditional, continuous - Form 

This tense is composed of two elements: the perfect condtional of the verb 
'to be' (would have been) +the present participle (base-ring). 



Subject 


would have been 


base+ing 


1 

We 


would have been 
would have been 


sitting 
swimming 


Affirmative 


1 


would have been 


studying. 


Negative 


You 


wouldn't have been 


living. 


Interrogative 


Would 


we have been 


travelling? 


Interrogative negative 


Wouldn't 


it have been 


working? 


Examples: to work, 


Past continuous conditional 


Affirmative 


Negative 





I would have been working 
You would have been working 
He would have been working 
We would have been working 
You would have been working 
They would have been working 



Interrogative 



Would I have been working? 
Would you have been working? 
Would he have been working? 
Would we have been working? 
Would you have been working? 
Would they have been working? 



I wouldn't have been working 
You wouldn't have been working. 
She wouldn't have been working 
We wouldn't have been working 
You wouldn't have been working 
They wouldn't have been working 



Interrogative negative 



Wouldn't I have been working? 
Wouldn't you have been working? 
Wouldn't she have been working? 
Wouldn't we have been working? 
Wouldn't you have been working? 
Wouldn't they have been working? 



2. Function 

This tense can be used in Type 3 conditional sentences. It refers to the 
unfulfilled result of the action in the if-clause, and expresses this result as 
an unfinished or continuous action. Again, there is always an unspoken 
"but.." phrase: 



• If the weather had been better (but it wasn't), I'd have been sitting 
in the garden when he arrived (but I wasn't and so I didn't see him). 

. If she hadn't got a job in London (but she did), she would have been 
working in Paris (but she wasn't). 



Examples: 



• If I'd had a ball I would have been playing football. 

• If I'd had any money I'd have been drinking with my friends in the 
pub that night. 

• If I had known it was dangerous I wouldn't have been climbing that 
cliff. 

• She wouldn't have been wearing a seat-belt if her father hadn't told 
her to. 



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PRESENT CONTINUOUS 
CONDITIONAL 

In type 2 conditional sentences, the 
continuous form of the present 
conditional may be used: 

If I were a millionaire, I wouldn't be 
doing thisjob! 

1. Present continuous conditional - 
form. 

This form is composed of two elements: 
the present conditional of the verb 'to be' 
(would be) +the present participle of the 
main verb (base-ring). 



Subject 


would be 


base+ing 


He 
They 


would be 
would be 


going 
living 


Affirmative 


We 


would be 


coming 


Negative 


You 


wouldn't 
be 


working 


Interrogative 


Would 


you be 


sharing? 


Interrogative negative 


Wouldn't 


they be 


playing? 



Example: to live, Present continuous 
conditional. 



Affirmative Negative Interrogative 



I would be 
living 

You would 
be living 

He would be 
living 

We would 
be living 

You would 
be living 

They would 
be living 



I wouldn't be 
living 

You wouldn't 
be living 

She wouldn't 
be living 

We wouldn't 
be living 

You wouldn't 
be living 

They 

wouldn't be 
living 



Would I be 
living? 

Would you be 

living? 

Would he be 
living? 

Would we be 
living? 

Would you be 

living? 

Would they 
be living? 



2. Present continuous conditional - 
function 

This form is common in Type 2 conditional 
sentences. It expresses an unfinished or 
continuing action or situation, which is 
the probable result of an unreal 
condition: 

• I would be working in Italy if I 
spoke Italian. 

(but I don't speak Italian, so I am 
not working in Italy. 
. She would be living with J ack if 
she wasn't living with her parents, 
(but she is living with her parents 
so she's not living with J ack). 

More examples: 

. I wouldn't be eating this if I 

wasn't extremely hungry. 

• If I had an exam tomorrow, I'd be 
revising now. 

• You wouldn't be smiling if you 

knew the truth. 



NOTE: This form is also found in: mixed 
conditional sentences (See section on 
Mixed Conditional Sentences); in indirect 
speech: 

She said "I'll be working in the garden." 
— * She said she would be working in 
the garden. (See section on Indirect 
Speech) 



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TENSES 



SIMPLE PRESENT FOR FUTURE EVENTS 



1. Form - see Simple Present section. 

2. Simple present for future events 



function 



The simple present is used to make statements about events at a time later 
than now, when the statements are based on present facts, and when these 
facts are something fixed like a time-table, schedule, calendar. 

Examples: 

a. The plane arrives at 18.00 tomorrow. 

b. She has a yoga class tomorrow morning. 

c. The restaurant opens at 19.30 tonight. 

d. Next Thursday at 14.00 there is an English exam. 

Note the difference between: 

a. The plane leaves in ten minutes ( = statement of fact) 

b. The plane's going to leave in ten minutes ( = prediction 
based on present situation, meaning "...and if you don't hurry 
up you're going to miss it!") 



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TENSES 

OTHER WAYS OF TALKING ABOUT THE FUTURE 
1. ISTO + INFINITIVE 

Form: 

This form is composed of two elements: the appropriate form of the verb to 
be +to (am to, are to, is to), and the infinitive of the main verb without 
to'.. 



Subject to be to 



We 



are to 



infinitive without to 



leave 



Affirmative 


She is to 


travel 


Negative 


You are not (aren't) to 


travel 


Interrogative 


Am 1 to 


travel? 


Interrogative negative 


Aren't they to 


travel? 



Function: 

This form refers to an obligation to do something at a time later than now. 
It is similar to 'must', but there is a suggestion that something has been 
arranged or organised for us. It is not normally used in spoken English, but 
might be found in spy stories, e.g. 

"You are to leave this room at once, and you are to travel by 
train to London. In London you are to pick up your ticket 
from Mr Smith, and you are to fly to your destination alone. 
When you arrive, you are to meet our agent, Mr X, who will 
give you further information. You are to destroy this message 
now." 

2. BE + ABOUT TO + INFINITIVE 

Form: 

This form is composed of three elements : the appropriate form of the verb 
to be, present tense, +'about to' +the infinitive of the main verb without 
'to': 



Subject 



I 



about to infinitive without to 



am 



about to 



leave 



She is about to arrive 

Function: 

This form refers to a time immediately after the moment of speaking, and 

emphasises that the event or action will happen very soon: 

Examples: 

a. She is about to leave. 

b. You are about to see something very unusual. 

c. I am about to go to a meeting - can I talk to you later? 

It is often used with the word 'j ust', which emphasises the immediacy of the 
action: 

We are just about to go to sleep. 
Sally is just about to take an exam. 

This form can also be used in the simple past tense to refer to an action that 
was imminent, but was interrupted. In such cases it is often followed by a 
'when - clause': 

She was about to leave when he arrived. 

I was just about to telephone her when she walked into the house. 

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TENSES 



FUTURE WITH GOING TO 



1. Future with Going to - form 

This form is composed of three elements: the appropriate form of the verb 
'to be' +going to +the infinitive of the main verb: 



Subject 



She 



'to be' 



is 



going to 



going to 



infinitive 



leave 



2. Future with Going to - function 

The use of 'going to' to refer to future events suggests a very strong 
association with the present. The time is not important - it is later than now, 
but the attitude is that the event depends on a present situation, that we 
know about. So it is used: 



a) to refer to our plans and intentions: 
We're going to move to London next year. 



= the plan is in our minds now. 



b) to make predictions based on present evidence: 
Look at those clouds - it's going to pour with rain! i 
can see now.) 



= If s clear from what I 



Note: In everyday speech, 'going to' is often shortened to 'gonna', especially 
in American English. 

More examples: 

Plans and intentions: 

a. Is Freddy going to buy a new car soon? 

b. Are John and Pam going to visit Milan when they are in Italy? 

c. I think Nigel and Mary are going to have a party next week. 

Predictions based on present evidence: 

a. There's going to be a terrible accident! 

b. He's going to be a brilliant politician. 

c. I'm going to have terrible indigestion. 

NOTE: It is unusual to say 'I'm going to go to...' 
Instead, we use 'going to' + a place or event: 

Examples: 

We are going to the beach tomorrow. 

She is going to the ballet tonight. 

Are you going to the party tomorrow night? 



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NOUNS 



USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS WITH NOUNS 



Capital letters are used with: 



Names and titles of people 



a. Winston Churchill 

b. Marilyn Monroe 

c. the Queen of England 

d. the President of the United States 

e. the Headmaster of Eton 

f. Doctor Mathews 

g. Professor Samuels. 

Note: The personal pronoun 'I' is always written with a 
capital letter. 



Titles of works, books etc. 



a. War and Peace 

b. The Merchant of Venice 

c. Crime and Punishment 

d. Tristan and Isolde 



Months of the year 



J anuary 


July 


February 


August 


March 


September 


April 


October 


May 


November 


J une 


December 


Days of the week 


Monday 


Friday 


Tuesday 


Saturday 


Wednesday 


Sunday 


Thursday 




Seasons 


Spring 




Summer 




Autumn 




Winter 





Holidays 



Christmas 
Boxing Day 



Easter 
May Day 



Geographical names... 

names of countries and continents 



America 

China 

Africa 



England 

Peru 

Europe 



names of regions, states, districts etc. 



Sussex 

Provence 

Florida 



California 
Tuscany 
Costa Brava 



names of cities, towns, villages etc. 



London 

Florence 

Vancouver 



Cape Town 

Bath 

Wellington 



New Year's Day 
Thanksgiving Day 



Scotland 

Albania 

Asia 

Queensland 

Vaud 

Tyrol 

Rome 

Wagga Wagga 
Peking 



names of rivers, oceans, seas, lakes etc. 



the Atlantic 
Lake Leman 
the Rhine 



the Dead Sea 
Lake Victoria 
the Thames 



the Pacific 
Lake Michigan 
the Nile 



names of geographical formations 



the Himalayas the Alps 



the Sahara 



Adjectives relating to nationality nouns 



France - French music 
Australia - Australian animals 
Germany - German literature 
Arabia - Arabic writing 
Indonesia - Indonesian poetry 
China - Chinese food 



Names of streets, buildings, parks etc. 



Park Lane Central Avenue Pall Mall 

George Street Sydney Opera House Central Park 

Hyde Park the Empire State Building Wall Street 



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NOUNS 



COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS 



Countable nouns are for things we can count 
Example: dog, horse, man, shop, idea. 

They usually have a singular and plural form. 

Example: two dogs, ten horses, a man, six men, the shops, a few ideas. 
Uncountable nouns are for the things that we cannot count 
Example: tea, sugar, water, air, rice. 

They are often the names for abstract ideas or qualities. 

Example: knowledge, beauty, anger, fear, love. 

They are used with a singular verb. They usually do not have a plural form. 
We cannot say sugars, angers, knowledges. 

Examples of common uncountable nouns: 

money, furniture, happiness, sadness, research, evidence, safety, 
beauty, knowledge. 

We cannot use a/ an with these nouns. To express a quantity of one of these 

nouns, use a word or expression like: 

some, a lot of, a piece of, a bit of, a great deal of... 

Examples: 

. There has been a lot of research into the causes of this disease. 

• He gave me a great deal of advice before my interview. 

• They've got a lot of furniture. 

• Can you give me some information about uncountable nouns? 

Some nouns are countable in other languages but uncountable in English. 
Some of the most common of these are: 



accommodation 


news 


advice 


progress 


baggage 


traffic 


behaviour 


travel 


bread 


trouble 


furniture 


weather 


information 


work 


luggage 





BE CAREFUL with the noun 'hair' which is normally uncountable in English: 

She has long blonde hair 
It can also be countable when referring to individual hairs: 

My father's getting a few grey hairs now 

See also Adjectives - Comparisons of quantity 

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REPORTED SPEECH 

CHANGE OF TIME AND PLACE REFERENCE 

Time/ place references are also changed in reported speech 

Examples: 

"I will see you here tomorrow", she said. She said that she would see 

me there the next day. 

The most common of these changes are shown below: 



"I saw him today", she said. 



Yesterday 



"I saw him yesterday", she said. 



The day before yesterday 



"I met her the day before yesterday", he 

said. 



Tomorrow 



"I'll see you tomorrow", he said 



The day after tomorrow 



"Wei I come the day after tomorrow" 

they said. 



Next week/month/year 



"I have an appointment next week", she 

said. 



Last week/month/year 



"I was on holiday last week", he told us. 



"I saw her a week ago," he said. 



this (for time) 



"I'm getting a new car this week", she 
said. 



that day 



She said that she had seen him that day. 



the day before 



She said that she had seen him the day 
before. 



two days before 



He said that he had met her two days 
before. 



the next/following day 



He said that he would see me the next day. 



in two days time/ two days later 



They said that they would come in two days 
time/ two days later. 



the following week/month/year 



She said that she had an appointment the 
following week. 



the previous/week/month/ye 



He told us that he had been on holiday the 
previous week. 




She said she was getting a new car that 
week. 



this/that (adjectives) 



"Do you like this shirt?" he asked 



He said, "I live here" 




He told me he lived there. 



Other changes: 

In general, personal pronouns change to the third person singular or plural, 
except when the speaker reports his own words: 



l/me/my/mine, you/your/yours him/ his/ her/ hers 

we/us/our/ours, you/your/yours they/their/theirs: 



He said 


"1 like your new car.' 


~^>He 


told her that he liked her new car. 




1 said: " 


'm going 


to my friend 


s house.' 




1 said that 1 was going tc 


my 




friend's 


house. 


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REPORTED SPEECH 



TENSE CHANGES 



Normally, the tense in reported speech is one tense back in time from the 
tense in direct speech: 



She said, "I am tired. 



She said that she was tired. 



The changes are shown below: 



Simple present 


"1 always drink coffee", she said 


Present continuous 


"1 am reading a book", he explained. 


Simple past 


"Bill arrived on Saturday", he said. 


Present perfect 


"1 have been to Spain", he told me. 


Past perfect 


"1 had just turned out the light," he 
explained. 


Present perfect continuous 


They complained, "We have been waiting 

for hours". 


Past continuous 


"We were living in Paris", they told me. 
"1 will be in Geneva on Monday", he said 


Future continuous 


She said, "I'll be using the car next 
Friday". 



Simple past 



She said that she always drank coffee. 



Past continuous 



He explained that he was reading a 

book 



Past perfect 



He said that Bill had arrived on 
Saturday 



Past perfect 



He told me that he had been to Spain 



Past perfect 



He explained that he had just turned 

out the light. 



Past perfect continuous 



They complained that they had been 
waiting for hours. 



Past perfect continuous 



They told me that they had been living 

in Paris. 



Present conditional 



He said that he would be in Geneva on 
Monday. 



Conditional continuous 



She said that she would be using the car 

next Friday. 



NOTE: 



1. You do not need to change the tense if the reporting verb is in the 
present, or if the original statement was about something that is still true, 
e.g. 

He says he has missed the train but he'll catch the next one. 
We explained that it is very difficult to find our house. 



2. These modal verbs do not change in reported speech: 



might, could, would, should, ought to, e.g. 

We explained that it could be difficult to find our house. 
She said that she might bring a friend to the party. 

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THE INFINITIVE 

INFINITIVE AFTER QUESTION WORDS 

These verbs: ask, decide, explain, forget, know, show, tell, understand, 
can be followed by a question word such as where, how, what, who, when 
or 'whether' +the 'to-infinitive'. 

Examples: 

• She asked me how to use the washing machine. 
. Do you understand what to do? 

. Tell me when to press the button. 

• I've forgotten where to put this little screw. 

• I can't decide whether to wear the red dress or the black one. 

The question word Why is followed by the zero infinitive in suggestions: 
Examples: 

• Why wait until tomorrow? 
. Why not ask him now? 

• Why walk when we can go in the car? 

. Why not buy a new bed for your bedroom? 

. Why leave before the end of the game? 

. Why not spend a week in Beirut and a week in Baghdad? 



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THE INFINITIVE 

NEGATIVE INFINITIVE. 

To form the negative infinitive, place not before the to- or zero infinitive: 
e.g. not to worry: 

It's hard not to worry about exams. 

Examples: 

. I decided not to go to London. 
. He asked me not to be late. 

• Elephants ought not to marry mice. 

. You'd better not smile at the crocodile. 

• I'd rather not eat meat. 



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THE INFINITIVE 

OTHER FORMS 

The infinitive can have the following forms: 

• The perfect infinitive 

• The continuous infinitive 

• The perfect continuous infinitive 

• The passive infinitive 

NOTE: as with the present infinitive, there are situations where the to is 
omitted, e.g. after most modal auxiliaries. 



The perfect infinitive: 



to have + past participle, e.g. to have broken, to have 
seen, to have saved. 

This form is most commonly found in Type 3 conditional 
sentences, using the conditional perfect, e.g. If I had known 
you were coming I would have baked a cake. 

Examples: 

• Someone must have broken the window and climbed 
in. 

. I would like to have seen the Taj Mahal when I was in 
India. 

• He pretended to have seen the film. 

• If I'd seen the ball I would have caught it. 



The continuous infinitive: 



to be + present participle, e.g. to be swimming, to be 
joking, to be waiting 

Examples: 

• I'd really like to be swimming in a nice cool pool right 
now. 

. You must be joking! 

• I happened to be waiting for the bus when the 
accident happened. 



The perfect continuous infinitive: 



to have been + present participle 

Examples: 

to have been crying 
to have been waiting 
to have been painting 

• The woman seemed to have been crying. 
. You must have been waiting for hours! 

• He pretended to have been painting all day. 



The passive infinitive: 



to be + past participle, e.g. to be given, to be shut, to be 
opened 

Examples: 

• I am expecting to be given a pay-rise next month. 

• These doors should be shut. 

. This window ought to be opened. 



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THE INFINITIVE 



FUNCTION 

The most common uses of the infinitive are: 

To indicate the purpose or intention of an action 
(where the 'to' has the same meaning as 'in order to' or 
'so as to'): 

• She's gone to collect her pay cheque. 

• The three bears went into the forest to find 
firewood. 

As the subject of the sentence: 

. To be or not to be, that is the question. 

• To know her is to love her. 

(Note: this is more common in written English than 
spoken) 

With nouns or pronouns, to indicate what something 
can be used for, or what is to be done with it: 

• Would you like something to drink? 

• I haven't anything to wear. 

. The children need a garden to play in. 

After adjectives in these patterns: 

• It is + adjective +to-infinitive 

It is good to talk 

• It is + adjective + infinitive + for someone + to- 
infinitive. 

It is hard for elephants to see mice 

• It is + adjective + infintive + of someone + to- 
infinitive. 

It is unkind of her to say that. 

After an adjective + noun when a comment or 
judgement is being made: 

. It was a stupid place to park the car. 

• This is the right thing to do. 

• It was an astonishing way to behave. 

With too and enough in these patterns: 

too much/many (+ noun) + to-infinitive 

There's too much sugar to put in this bowl. 
I had too many books to carry. 



too + adjective + to-infinitive 

This soup is too hot to eat. 
She was too tired to work. 

too + adverb + to-infinitive 

He arrived too late to see the actors. 

enough (+ noun) + to-infinitive 

I've had enough (food) to eat. 

adjective + enough + to-infinitive 

She's old enough to make up her own mind. 

not enough (+noun) + to-infinitive 

There isn't enough snow to ski on. 

not + adjective + enough + to-infinitive 

You're not old enough to have grand- 
children! 



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TO GET 

TO GET + direct object =to obtain, to receive, to buy: 
To obtain 

• She got her driving license last week. 

. They got permission to live in Switzerland. 

To receive 

• I got a letter from my friend in Nigeria. 

• He gets £1,000 a year from his father. 



To buy 



She got a new coat from Zappaloni in Rome. 
We got a new television for the sitting room. 



TO GET + place expression = reach, arrive at a place: 

. We got to London around 6 p.m. 

. What time will we get there? 

. When did you get back from New York? 



TO GET + adjective =to become, show a change of state: 

• It's getting hotter. 

. By the time they reached the house they were getting hungry. 

. I'm getting tired of all this nonsense. 

• My mother's getting old and needs looking after. 

• It gets dark very early in the winter. 

. Don't touch the stove until is gets cool. 



TO GET + preposition / adverb is used in many phrasal verbs. Here are some 
of the most common ones: 



Phrasal Verb Meaning 


get at 


try to express 


get away with 


escape punishment for a crime or bad action 


get by 


manage (financially) 


get down 


descend; depress 



get off 


leave a form of transport 
(train, bus, bicycle, plane) 


get on 


enter/ sit on a form of transport 
(train, bus, bicycle, plane); 
have a relationship with someone; 
manage 


get out of 


avoid doing something, especially a duty 


get over 


recover (from an illness, a surprise) 


get through 


use or finish the supply of something 


get up 


leave your bed 


get up to 


do - usually something bad 



Examples: 

a. He got on his bicycle and rode down the street. 

b. He gets up at 6.00 a.m. every morning. 

c. She got out of the washing-up every day, even when it was her turn. 

d. We got off the train j ust before the bomb exploded. 

e. We've got through all the sugar - can you buy some more? 

f. The children are very quiet - I wonder what they're getting up to. 



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TO GET 



To get' can be used in a number of patterns and has a number of meanings. 

TO GET + direct object = obtain, receive, buy. 
Example: I got my passport last week. 

More Examples 

TO GET + place expression = reach, arrive at a place. 
Example: How are you getting home tonight? 

More Examples 

TO GET + adjective = become, show a change of state. 
Example: I am getting old. 

More Examples 

TO GET + preposition/adverb is used in many phrasal verbs. 
Example: This rain is really getting me down. 

More Examples 

TO GET has a number of other meanings: 

a. Do you get it? ( = understand) 

b. He's getting dinner tonight. ( = prepare a meal) 

c. I'll get the bill. ( = pay) 

d. That really gets me! (= irritate, annoy) 

Other expressions with GET: 

• To get rid of something means to throw it away. 
Example: I'm going to get rid of all these old newspapers. 

. To get out of be on the wrong side means to be in a bad mood. 
Example: He got out of the wrong side of the bed this morning and 
he's been horrible all day. 

• To get your own back means to have your revenge or punish someone. 
Example: She's getting her own back for all those rude things you 
said at the party last night. 



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DIRECT AND REPORTED SPEECH 

You can answer the question "What did he/she say?" in two ways: 

• by repeating the words spoken (direct speech) 

• by reporting the words spoken (indirect or reported speech). 

Direct Speech 

Direct speech repeats, or quotes, the exact words spoken. When we use 
direct speech in writing, we place the words spoken between inverted 
commas ("....") and there is no change in these words. We may be reporting 
something that's being said NOW (for example a telephone conversation), or 
telling someone later about a previous conversation 

Examples: 

She says "What time will you be home?" 

She said "What time will you be home?" 

and I said "I don't know! " 

"There's a fly in my soup!" screamed Simone. 

J ohn said, "There's an elephant outside the window." 

Reported Speech 

Reported speech is usually used to talk about the past, so we normally 
change the tense of the words spoken. We use reporting verbs like 'say', 'tell' 
'ask', and we may use the word 'that' to introduce the reported words. 
Inverted commas are not used. 



She said, "I saw him.' 



She said that she had seen him. 



a. 'That' may be omitted: 

She told him that she was happy. 
She told him she was happy. 

b. 'Say' and 'tell': 

Use 'say' when there is no indirect object: 
He said that he was tired. 

Always use 'tell' when you say who was being spoken to (i.e. with an 

indirect object): 

He told me that he was tired. 

'Talk' and 'speak' are used: 

- to describe the action of communicating: 
He talked to us. 

She was speaking on the telephone. 

- with 'about' to refer to what was said: 
He talked (to us) about his parents. 



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REPORTED SPEECH 



HOPES, INTENTIONS, PROMISES 

When we report an intention, hope or promise, we use an appropriate 
reporting verb followed by a that-clause or a to-infinitive: 

"I'll pay you the money tomorrow." 

He promised to pay me the money the next day. 

He promised that he would pay me the money the next day. 

Other verbs used in this pattern include: 
hope, propose, threaten, guarantee, swear. 

Examples: 



a. "HI be back by lunchtime." 

He promised to be back by lunchtime. 

He promised that he would be back by lunchtime. 

b. "We should arrive in London before nightfall." 
They hoped to arrive in London before nightfall. 

They hoped they would arrive in London before nightfall. 

c. "Give me the keys to the safe or I'll shoot you!" 

He threatened to shoot me if I didn't give him the keys to the safe. 
He threatened that he would shoot me if I didn't give him the keys 
to the safe. 



Note: 



see also Summary of Reporting Verbs . 



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REPORTED SPEECH 



ORDERS, REQUESTS, SUGGESTIONS 

1. When we want to report an order or request, we can use a verb like 'tell' 
with a to-clause. 



Examples: 

He told me to go away. 

The pattern is verb + indirect object + to-clause. 

(The indirect object is the person spoken to.) 

Other verbs used to report orders and requests in this way are: command, 
order, warn, ask, advise, invite, beg, teach, forbid. 

Examples: 

a. The doctor said to me, "Stop smoking!". — * 
The doctor told me to stop smoking. 



b. "Get out of the car!" said the policeman. 

The policeman ordered him to get out of the car. 

c. "Could you please be quiet," she said. «^-* 
She asked me to be quiet. 

d. The man with the gun said to us, "Don't move!" «^-* 
The man with the gun warned us not to move. 

(See also section on Verbs followed by infinitive and Verbs followed by 
gerund ) 



2. Requests for objects are reported using the pattern 
ask + for + object: Examples: 



a. "Can I have an apple?", she asked. 

b. "Can I have the newspaper, please?" 
He asked for the newspaper. 

c. "May I have a glass of water?" he said. 
He asked for a glass of water. 

d. "Sugar, please." 

She asked for the sugar. 

e. "Could I have three kilos of onions?" 
He asked for three kilos of onions. 



She asked for an apple. 



3. Suggestions are usually reported with a that-clause. 'That' and 'should' are 
optional in these clauses: 

She said: "Why don't you get a mechanic to look at the car?" She 

suggested that I should get a mechanic to look at the car. OR She suggested I 
get a mechanic to look at the car. 



Other reporting verbs used in this way are: insist, recommend, demand, 



request, propose. 

Examples: 

a. "It would be a good idea to see the dentist", said my mother. - My 
mother suggested I see the dentist. 

b. The dentist said, "I think you should use a different toothbrush". The 
dentist recommended that I should use a different toothbrush. 

c. My manager said, "I think we should examine the budget carefully at this 
meeting." » My manager proposed that we examine the budget carefully 
at the meeting. 

d. 'Why don't you sleep overnight at my house?" she said. She suggested 
that I sleep overnight at her house. 

Notes: 

Suggest can also be followed by a gerund: I suggested postponing the visit to 
the dentist. 

See also Summary of Reporting Verbs . 



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- ING 1 FORM 

VERBS FOLLOWED BY THE GERUND 

The gerund is used after certain verbs. 

Example: 

miss: I miss living in England. 

The most important of these verbs are shown below. 
Those marked * can also be followed by a that-clause 

Example: 



VERB 


GERUND 




She admitted... 


breaking 


the window 




THAT-CLAUSE 


She admitted... 


that she had broken the window. 


acknowledge,* 




keep, 


admit,* 




loathe, 


anticipate,* apprec 


iate,* 


mean,(=have as result)* 


avoid, 




mention,* 


celebrate, 




mind, 


consider, contemplate, 


miss, 


defer, 




pardon, 


delay, 




postpone, 


deny,* 




prevent, 


detest, 




propose,* 


dislike, 




recall,* 


dread, 




recollect,* 


enj oy, 




remember, 


entail, 




report,* 


escape, 




resent, 


excuse, 




resist, 


fancy (=i imagine)*, 




risk, 


finish, 




save (=prevent the wasted 


forgive, 




effort) 


imagine,* 




stop, 


involve, 




suggest,* 
understand,* 



Notes: 



Appreciate is followed by a possessive adjective and the gerund when the 

gerund does not refer to the subject. Compare : 

I appreciate having some time off work. (I'm having the time...) 

I appreciate your giving me some time off work. (You're giving me the 

time...) 



Excuse, forgive, pardon can be followed by an object and the gerund or for 
+ object and the gerund (both common in spoken English), or a possessive 
adjective +gerund (more formal and less likely to be said): 
Excuse me interrupting. 
Excuse me for interrupting. 
Excuse my interrupting. 

Suggest can be used in a number of ways, but BE CAREFUL. It is important 
not to confuse these patterns: 

suggest/ suggested ( + possessive adjective) + gerund: 

He suggests going to Glastonbury 

He suggested going to Glastonbury 

He suggested/ suggests my going to Glastonbury 

suggest/ suggested +that-clause (where both that and should 

may be omitted): 

He suggests that I should go to Glastonbury 

He suggested that I should go to Glastonbury 

He suggested/ suggests I should go to Glastonbury 

He suggested/ suggests I go to Glastonbury 

He suggested I went to Glastonbury. 

suggest/ suggested +question word + infinitive: 
He suggested where to go. 

Propose is followed by the gerund when it means 'suggest': 

J ohn proposed going to the debate 

but by the infinitive when it means 'intend': 

The Government proposes bringing in new laws. . 

Stop can be followed by a gerund or infinitive, but there is a change of 
meaning - see GERUND / INFINITIVE? section. 

Dread is followed by the infinitive when used with 'think', in the expression 'I 

dread to think': 

I dread to think what she'll do next. 

Prevent is followed 

EITHER by a possessive adjective +gerund: 
You can't prevent my leaving. 

OR by an object +from +gerund: 
You can't prevent me from leaving. 

Examples: 

. Normally, a mouse wouldn't contemplate marrying an elephant. 

. Most mice dread meeting elephants. 

• We can't risk getting wet - we haven't got any dry clothes. 

• If you take that job it will mean getting home late every night. 
. I can't imagine living in that big house. 

• If you buy some petrol now, it will save you stopping on the way to 
London. 

• She couldn't resist eating the plum she found in the fridge. 

• They decided to postpone painting the house until the weather 
improved. 

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REPORTED SPEECH 



QUESTIONS 



1. Normal word order is used in reported questions, that is, the subject 
comes before the verb, and it is not necessary to use 'do' or 'did': 



"Where does Peter live?" 
lived. 



She asked him where Peter 



2. Yes/ no questions: This type of question is reported by using 'ask' + 'if / 
whether + clause: 

a. "Do you speak English?" He asked me if I spoke English. 

b. "Are you British or American?" He asked me whether I 
was British or American. 



c. "Is it raining?" She asked if it was raining. 

d. "Have you got a computer?" He wanted to know 
whether I had a computer. 

e. "Can you type?" - She asked if I could type. 

f. "Did you come by train?" - ♦ He enquired whether I had 
come by train. 

g. "Have you been to Bristol before?" ■ She asked if I had 
been to Bristol before. 



3. Question words: 

This type of question is reported by using 'ask' (or another verb like 'ask') + 
question word +clause. The clause contains the question, in normal word 
order and with the necessary tense change. 



Examples: 



a. "What is your name?" he asked me. - He asked me what 
my name was. 

b. "How old is your mother?", he asked. He asked how old 
her mother was. 



c. The mouse said to the elephant, "Where do you live?" 
The mouse asked the elephant where she lived. 

d. "What time does the train arrive?" she asked. She 
asked what time the train arrived. 

e. "When can we have dinner?" she asked. She asked 
when they could have dinner. 

f. The elephant said to the mouse, "Why are you so small?" 

The elephant asked the mouse why she was so small. 



Note: 


See 


also Summary of Reportinq Verbs 

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RELATIVE CLAUSES 

NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES 

The information in these clauses is not essential. It tells us more about 
someone or something, but it does not help us to identify them or it. 
Compare: 



1. Elephants that love mice are very unusual . 
we are talking about). 



(This tells us which elephants 



2. Elephants, which are large and grey, can sometimes be found in zoos. 
(This gives us some extra information about elephants - we are talking about 
all elephants, not j ust one type or group). 

3. J ohn's mother, who lives in Scotland, has 6 grandchildren. (We know who 
J ohn's mother is, and he only has one. The important information is the 
number of grandchildren, but the fact that she lives in Scotland might be 
followed with the words "by the way" - it is additional information). 

Punctuation 

Non-defining relative clauses are always separated from the rest of the 
sentence by commas. The commas have a similar function to brackets: 
My friend J ohn hasjust written a best-selling novel. (He went to the same 
school as me) >My friend J ohn, who went to the same school as me, has 
just written a best-selling novel. 

Relative pronouns in non-defining clauses 





Person Thing 


Place 


Subject 


who which 
who/ whom which 




Object 


where 


Possessive 


whose 





Notes: 



1. In non-defining clauses, you cannot use 'that' instead of who, whom or 
which. 

2. You cannot leave out the relative pronoun, even when it is the obj ect of 
the verb in the relative clause: 

He gave me the letter, which was in a blue envelope. 
He gave me the letter, which I read immediately 

3. The preposition in these clauses can go at the end of the clause, e.g. This 
is Stratford-on-Avon, which you have all heard about. 



This pattern is often used in spoken English, but in written or formal English 
you can also put the preposition before the pronoun: e.g. Stratford-on-Avon, 
about which many people have written is Shakespeare's birthplace. 



4. Non-defining clauses can be introduced by expressions like all of, many of 
+ relative pronoun: 





Person 


Thing 


all of 


+ whom 


+ which 


any of 


+ whom 


+ which 


(a) few of 


+ whom 


+ which 


both of 


+ whom 


+ which 


each of 


+ whom 


+ which 


either of 


+ whom 


+ which 


half of 


+ whom 


+ which 


many of 


+ whom 


+ which 


most of 


+ whom 


+ which 


much of 


+ whom 


+ which 


none of 


+ whom 


+ which 


one of 


+ whom 


+ which 


two of etc... 


+ whom 


+ which 



Examples: 

a. There were a lot of people at the party, many of whom I had known for 
years. 

b. He was carrying his belongings, many of which were broken. 

5. The relative pronoun which at the beginning of a non-defining relative 
clause, can refer to all the information contained in the previous part of the 
sentence, rather than to just one word. 

a. Chris did really well in his exams, which was a big surprise. (=the fact 
that he did well in his exams was a big surprise). 

b. An elephant and a mouse fell in love, which is most unusual. ( = the fact 
that they fell in love is unusual). 

Examples: 

a. My grandmother, who is dead now, came from the North of England. 

b. I spoke to Fred, who explained the problem. 

c. The elephant looked at the tree, under which she had often sat. 

d. We stopped at the museum, which we'd never been into. 

e. She's studying maths, which many people hate. 

f. I've just met Susan, whose husband works in London. 

g. He had thousands of books, most of which he had read. 



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RELATIVE CLAUSE 

WHERE TO PUT THE PREPOSTITION IN A RELATIVE CLAUSE 

There are often prepositions in relative clauses, and the relative pronoun is 
the object of the preposition. This means that the preposition can sometimes 
be omitted. 

1. The preposition is normally placed at the end of the relative clause: 

Is that the man (who) you arrived with? 

Do you know the girl (that) J ohn is talking to? 

2. In formal or written English, the preposition is often placed before 
the relative pronoun, and in this case the pronoun cannot be omitted: 

The person with whom he is negotiating is the Chairman of a 
large company. 

It is a society to which many important people belong. 
However, this is unusual in spoken English. 
Examples: 

• The jungle the elephant lived in was full of strange and unusual 
animals. 

. He was very fond of the mouse that he lived with. 

• The tree under which they had their home was the largest and 
oldest in the jungle. 

• In the middle of the jungle was a river that all the animals went to 
every day. 

• It was the stream in which the elephant and the mouse preferred 
to swim. 



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RELATIVE CLAUSES 



DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES 

As the name suggests, these clauses give essential information to define or 
identify the person or thing we are talking about. Obviously, this is only 
necessary if there is more than one person or thing involved. 

Example: 

Elephants who marry mice are very unusual. 

In this sentence we understand that there are many elephants, but it is clear 

that we are only talking the ones who marry mice. 

Punctuation 

Commas are not used in defining relative clauses. 

Relative pronouns 

The following relative pronouns are used in defining relative clauses: 



Subject 


Person Thing 


Place Time Reason 


who/ that which/ that 




Object 


who/ whom/ that/ which/that/o 


where when why 


Possessive 


whose whose 





Notes: 

1. The relative pronoun stands in place of a noun. 
This noun usually appears earlier in the sentence: 




2. Who, whom and which can be replaced by that. This is very common in 
spoken English. 

3. The relative pronoun can be omitted (0) when it is the obj ect of the 
clause: 

The mouse that the elephant loved was very beautiful . 
OR The mouse the elephant loved was very beautiful . 

Both of these sentences are correct, though the second one is more common 
in spoken English. 



The mouse that/o the elephant loved was very beautiful. 



Noun, subject of 


relative 


verb + rest of 


verb +rest of main 


main clause 


pronoun, 
referring to 
'the mouse, 
object of 
loved' 


relative clause 


clause. 



(You can usually decide whether a relative pronoun is an object because it is 
normally followed by another subject +verb.) 

4. Whose is used for things as well as for people. 

Examples: 

The man whose car was stolen. 

A tree whose leaves have fallen. 

5. Whom is very formal and is only used in written English. You can use 
who/ that, or omit the pronoun completely : 

The doctor whom/who/that/o I was hoping to see wasn't on duty. 

6. That normally follows words like something, anything, everything, 
nothing, all, and superlatives. 

Examples: 

There's something that you should know. 
It was the best film that I've ever seen. 

Examples: 

A clown is someone who makes you laugh. 

An elephant is an animal that lives in hot countries. 

The plums that were in the fridge were delicious. I have eaten them. 

Where are the plums (that) I put in the fridge? 

Mas anyone seen the book I was reading? 

Nothing that anyone does can replace my lost bag. 

Let's go to a country where the sun always shines. 

They live in the house whose roof is full of holes. 



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RELATIVE CLAUSES 



See also Pronouns. 

There are two different types of relative clause: 

1. A "defining" or identifying clause, which tells us which person or thing 
we are talking about. 

2. A "non-defining" or non-essential clause, which gives us more 
information about the person or thing we are talking about. This kind 
of clause could often be information included in brackets (...) 

Example: 

The farmer (his name was Fred) sold us some potatoes. 
The farmer, whose name was Fred, sold us some potatoes. 

It is important to see the difference between the two types of clause, as it 
affects: 

a. the choice of pronoun used to introduce the clause, 

b. the punctuation - you must use commas with a non-defining clause. 



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ING 1 FORM 



THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE 

The present participle of most verbs has the form base-ring and is used in the 
following ways: 

a. as part of the continuous form of a verb 

(See continuous tenses in VERB TENSES ) 

Example: 

I am working, 

he was singing, 

they have been walking. 

b. after verbs of movement/position in the pattern: verb + 
present participle 

Example: 

• She went shopping 

• He lay looking up at the clouds 

• She came running towards me 

This construction is particularly useful with the verb 'to go', as in these 
common expressions : 



to go shopping 
to go ski-ing 
to go fishing 
to go surfing 



to go walking 
to go swimming 
to go running 
to go dancing 



c. after verbs of perception in the pattern: 
verb + object + present participle 

Example: 

I heard someone singing. 

He saw his friend walking along the road. 

I can smell something burning! 

NOTE: There is a difference in meaning when such a sentence contains a 
zero-infinitive rather than a participle. The infinitive refers to a complete 
action, but the participle refers to an incomplete action, or part of an 
action. 



Compare: 



• I heard J oanna singing ( = she had started before I heard her, and 
probably went on afterwards) 

• I heard J oanna sing ( = 1 heard her complete performance) 

d. as an adjective 

Examples: 

amazing, worrying, exciting, boring. 

• It was an amazing film. 

• It's a bit worrying when the police stop you 

• Dark billowing clouds often precede a storm. 
. Racing cars can go as fast as 400kph. 

. He was trapped inside the burning house. 

• Many of his paintings depict the setting sun. 

e. with the verbs spend and waste, in the pattern: 
verb + time/ money expression + present participle 

Example: 

• My boss spends two hours a day travelling to work. 

• Don't waste time playing computer games! 

• They've spent the whole day shopping. 

f. with the verbs catch and find, in the pattern: 
verb + object + present participle: 

With catch, the participle always refers to an action which causes annoyance 
or anger: 

. If I catch you stealing my apples again, there'll be trouble! 

• Don't let him catch you reading his letters. 

This is not the case with find, which is unemotional: 

. We found some money lying on the ground. 
. They found their mother sitting in the garden. 

g. to replace a sentence or part of a sentence: 

When two actions occur at the same time, and are done by the same person 
or thing, we can use a present participle to describe one of them: 

• They went out into the snow. They laughed as they went. They 
went laughing out into the snow. 

. He whistled to himself. He walked down the road. - Whistling to 
himself, he walked down the road. 

When one action follows very quickly after another done by the same person 
or thing, we can express the first action with a present participle: 

• He put on his coat and left the house. ■ Putting on his coat, he 
left the house. 

. She dropped the gun and put her hands in the air. Dropping the 



gun, she put her hands in the air. 

The present participle can be used instead of a phrase starting as, since, 
because, and it explains the cause or reason for an action: 

• Feeling hungry, he went into the kitchen and opened the fridge. 
( = because he felt hungry...) 

• Being poor, he didn't spend much on clothes. 

. Knowing that his mother was coming, he cleaned the flat. 

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ING 1 FORM 



INTRODUCTION 

The '-ing' form of the verb may be a present participle or a gerund. 

The form is identical, the difference is in the function, or the job the word 
does in the sentence. 

The present participle: 

This is most commonly used: 

• as part of the continuous form of a verb, 
he is painting; she has been waiting 

• after verbs of movement/ position in the pattern: 
verb + present participle, 

She sat looking at the sea 

• after verbs of perception in the pattern: 
verb +object +present participle, 

We saw him swimming 

• as an adjective, e.g. amazing, worrying, exciting, boring 

The gerund: 

This always has the same function as a noun (although it looks like a verb), so 
it can be used: 

. as the subject of the sentence: 
Eating people is wrong. 

• after prepositions: 

Can you sneeze without opening your mouth? 
She is good at painting 

• after certain verbs, 

e.g. like, hate, admit, imagine 

• in compound nouns, 

e.g. a driving lesson, a swimming pool, bird-watching, train- 
spotting 



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NOUNS 



THE PLURAL OF NOUNS 



Most nouns form the plural by adding -s or -es. 



Singular 


Plural 


boat 


boats 


hat 


hats 


house 


houses 


river 


rivers 



A noun ending in -y preceded by a consonant makes the plural with -ies. 



Singular 


Plural 


a cry 


cries 


a fly 


flies 


a nappy 


nappies 


a poppy 


poppies 


a city 


cities 


a lady 


ladies 


a baby 


babies 



There are some irregular formations for noun plurals. Some of the most 
common ones are listed below. 

Examples of irregular plurals: 



Singular 


Plural 


woman 


women 


man 


men 


child 


children 


tooth 


teeth 


foot 


feet 


person 


people 


leaf 


leaves 


half 


halves 


knife 


knives 


wife 


wives 


life 


lives 


loaf 


loaves 


potato 


potatoes 



cactus 


cacti 


focus 


foci 


fungus 


fungi 


nucleus 


nuclei 


syllabus 


syllabi/ syllabuses 


analysis 


analyses 


diagnosis 


diagnoses 


oasis 


oases 


thesis 


theses 


crisis 


crises 


phenomenon 


phenomena 


criterion 


criteria 


datum 


data 



Some nouns have the same form in the singular and the plural. 
Examples: 



Singular 


Plural 


sheep 


sheep 


fish 


fish 


species 


species 


aircraft 


aircraft 



Some nouns have a plural form but take a singular verb. 

Examples: 

news The news is on at 6.30 p.m. 

athletics Athletics is good for young people. 
linguistics Linguistics is the study of language. 
darts Darts is a popular game in England. 

billiards Billiards is played all over the world. 

Some nouns have a plural form and take a plural verb. 

Examples: 

trousers My trousers are too tight. 

jeans — ► Her jeans are black. 
glasses Those glasses are his. 

others include: 

savings, thanks, steps, stair, customs, congratulations, tropics, wages, 
spectacles, outskirts, goods, wits 

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THE PASSIVE VOICE 



PASSIVE, FORM 



The passive voice in English is composed of two elements : the appropriate 
form of the verb 'to be' +the past participle of the verb in question: 



Subject verb 'to be' past participle 



The house was 



built 



Example: to clean 



Subject 


verb 'to be' 


Ipast participle 


Simple present: 


The house 


is 


cleaned every day. 




Present continuous: 


The house 


is being 


cleaned at the moment. 




Simple past: 


The house 


was 


cleaned yesterday. 




Past continuous: 


The house 


was being 


cleaned last week. 




Present perfect: 


The house 


has been 


cleaned since you left. 




Past perfect: 


The house 


had been 


cleaned before their arrival. 




Future: 


The house 


will be 


cleaned next week. 




Future continuous: 


The house 


will be being 


cleaned tomorrow. 




Present conditional: 


The house 


would be 


cleaned if they had visitors. 




Past conditional: 


The house 


would have been 


cleaned if it had been dirty. 



NOTE: 'to be born' is a passive form and is most commonly used in the past 
tense: 

I was born in 1976. When were you born? 

BUT: Around 100 babies are born in this hospital every week. 

Infinitive form: infinitive of 'to be' +past participle: (to) be cleaned 



This form is used after modal verbs and other verbs normally followed by an 
infinitive, e.g. 



You have to be tested on your English grammar 
J ohn might be promoted next year. 
She wants to be invited to the party. 

Gerund or -ing form: being +past participle: being cleaned 

This form is used after prepositions and verbs normally followed by a gerund 

Examples: 

a. Most film stars hate being interviewed. 

b. I remember being taught to drive. 

c. The children are excited about being taken to the zoo. 

NOTE: Sometimes the passive is formed using the verb to get instead of the 
verb to be: 

a. He got arrested for dangerous driving. 

b. They're getting married later this year. 

c. I'm not sure how the window got broken. 

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THE PASSIVE VOICE 

PASSIVE, FUNCTION 

The passive voice is used to show interest in the person or object that 
experiences an action rather than the person or obj ect that performs the 
action, e.g. 

• The passive is used ...: 

We are interested in the passive, not who uses it. 

• The house was built in 1654: 

We are interested in the house, not the builder. 
. The road is being repaired: 
We are interested in the road, not the people repairing it. 

In other words, the most important thing or person becomes the subject of 
the sentence. 

Sometimes we use the passive voice because we don't know or cannot 
express who or what performed the action: 

• I noticed that a window had been left open 

• Every year people are killed on our roads. 

If we want to say who or what performs the action, we use the preposition 
by: 

• "A Hard Day's Night" was written by the Beatles 
. ET was directed by Spielberg 

The passive voice is often used in formal or scientific texts: 

• A great deal of meaning is conveyed by a few well-chosen words. 

• Our planet is wrapped in a mass of gases. 

• Waste materials are disposed of in a variety of ways. 

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THE PASSIVE VOICE 

GET / HAVE SOMETHING DONE 

This construction is passive in meaning. It may describe situations where we 
want someone else to do something for us. 

Examples: 

a. I must get / have my hair cut. 

b. When are you going to get that window mended? 

c. We're having the house painted. 

If the verb refers to something negative or unwanted, it has the same 
meaning as a passive sentence: 

d. J im had his car stolen last night. (=J im's car was stolen) 

e. They had their roof blown off in the storm. (=Their roof 
was blown off in the storm) 

The construction can refer to the completion of an activity, especially if a 
time expression is used: 

f. We'll get the work done as soon as possible. 

g. I'll get those letters typed before lunchtime. 

In all these sentences, we are more interested in the result of the activity 
than in the person or obj ect that performs the activity. 

X 1 NEEDS DOING 

In the same way, this construction has a passive meaning. The important 
thing in our minds is the person or thing that will experience the action, e.g. 

a. The ceiling needs painting ( = the ceiling needs to be 
painted) 

b. My hair needs cutting ( = my hair needs to be cut) 



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THE PASSIVE VOICE 



PASSIVE TENSES AND ACTIVE EQUIVALENTS 

Notice that the tense of the verb to be in the passive voice is the same as the 
tense of the main verb in the active voice. 



Example: to keep 



TENSE / VERB FORM 


ACTIVE VOICE 


PASSIVE VOICE 


Simple present 


keeps 


is kept 


Present continuous 


is keeping 


is being kept 


Simple past 


kept 


was kept 


Past continuous 


was keeping 


was being kept 


Present perfect 


have kept 


have been kept 


Past perfect 


had kept 


had been kept 


future 


will keep 


will be kept 


Conditional present 


would keep 


would be kept 


Conditional past 


would have kept 


would have been kept 


present infinitive 


to keep 


to be kept 


perfect infinitive 


to have kept 


to have been kept 


present participle/gerund 


keeping 


being kept 


perfect participle 


having kept 


having been kept 



Example sentences: 

Active: I keep the butter in the fridge. 
Passive: The butter is kept in the fridge. 

Active: They stole the painting. 
Passive: The painting was stolen. 

Active: They are repairing the road. 
Passive: The road is being repaired. 

Active: Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. 

Passive: Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. 

Active: A dog bit him. 

Passive: He was bitten by a dog. 



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NOUNS 

COMPOUND NOUNS 
Formation 

Words can be combined to form compound nouns. These are very common, 
and new combinations are invented almost daily. They normally have two 
parts. The second part identifies the object or person in question (man, 
friend, tank, table, room). The first part tells us what kind of obj ect or 
person it is, or what its purpose is (police, boy, water, dining, bed): 



What type / what purpose 


What or who 1 


police 


man 


boy 


friend 


water 


tank 


dining 


table 


bed 


room 



The two parts may be written in a number of ways : 

1. as one word. 

Example: policeman, boyfriend 

2. as two words joined with a hyphen. 
Example: dining-table 

3. as two separate words. 
Example: fish tank. 

There are no clear rules about this - so write the common compounds that 
you know well as one word, and the others as two words. 



The two parts may be: Examples: 



noun + noun 



bedroom 
water tank 
motorcycle 
printer cartridge 



rainfall 
noun + verb haircut 

train-spotting 



noun + adverb 



hanger-on 
passer-by 



washing machine 
verb + noun driving licence 
swimming pool 



verb + adverb* 


lookout 
take-off 
drawback 


adjective + noun 


greenhouse 

software 

redhead 


adjective + verb 


dry-cleaning 
public speaking 


adverb + noun 


onlooker 
bystander 


adverb + verb* 


output 
overthrow 
upturn 
input 



Compound nouns often have a meaning that is different from the two 
separate words. 

Stress is important in pronunciation, as it distinguishes between a compound 
noun (e.g. greenhouse) and an adjective with a noun (e.g. green house). 

In compound nouns, the stress usually falls on the first syllable: 

a 'greenhouse = place where we grow plants (compound noun) 
a green 'house = house painted green (adjective and noun) 
a 'bluebird =type of bird (compound noun) 
a blue 'bird =any bird with blue feathers (adjective and noun) 

* Many common compound nouns are formed from phrasal verbs (verb + 
adverb or adverb -i-verb). 

Examples: breakdown, outbreak, outcome, cutback, drive-in, drop-out, 
feedback, flyover, hold-up, hangover, outlay, outlet, inlet, makeup, 
output, set-back, stand-in, takeaway, walkover. 

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NOUNS 

Nouns answer the questions "What is it?" and "Who is it?" They give names to 
things, people and qualities. 

Examples: dog, bicycle, man, girl, beauty, truth, world. 

NOUN GENDER 

In general there is no distinction between masculine, feminine and neuter in 
English nouns. However, gender is sometimes shown by different forms or 
different words. 

Examples: 
Different words: 



Masculine 


Feminine 




man 

father 

uncle 

boy 

husband 


woman 

mother 

aunt 

girl 

wife 





Different forms: 



Masculine 


Feminine 


actor 


actress 


prince 


princess 


hero 


heroine 


waiter 


waitress 


widower 


widow 



Some nouns can be used for either a masculine or a feminine subject: 
Examples: 

cousin teenager teacher doctor 

cook student parent friend 

relation colleague partner leader 



• Mary is a doctor. She is a doctor 

• Peter is a doctor. He is a doctor. 

. Arthur is my cousin. He is my cousin. 

• J ane is my cousin. She is my cousin. 

It is possible to make the distinction by adding the words 'male' or 'female'. 



Example: a female student; a male cousin 

For professions, we can add the word 'woman' 

Example: a woman doctor; a woman journalist. 

In some cases nouns describing things are given gender. 

Examples: 

. I love my car. She (the car) is my greatest passion. 

• France is popular with her (France's) neighbours at the moment. 

• I travelled from England to New York on the Queen Elizabeth, she 
(the Queen Elizabeth) is a great ship. 

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NOUNS 



SECTION MENU: 



Noun Gender 

The Plural of Nouns 

Countable and Uncountable nouns 

Compound Nouns 

Proper Nouns 

Nationalities 



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ING 1 FORM 



THE GERUND 

This looks exactly the same as a present participle, and for this reason it is 
now common to call both forms 'the -ing form'. However it is useful to 
understand the difference between the two. The gerund always has the same 
function as a noun (although it looks like a verb), so it can be used: 

a. as the subject of the sentence: 

. Eating people is wrong. 

• Hunting elephants is dangerous. 

• Flying makes me nervous. 

b. as the complement of the verb 'to be': 

• One of his duties is attending meetings. 

• The hardest thing about learning English is understanding the 
gerund. 

. One of life's pleasures is having breakfast in bed. 

c. after prepositions. The gerund must be used when a verb 
comes after a preposition: 

. Can you sneeze without opening your mouth? 

• She is good at painting. 

• They're keen on windsurfing. 

• She avoided him by walking on the opposite side of the road. 

• We arrived in Madrid after driving all night. 

• My father decided against postponing his trip to Hungary. 

This is also true of certain expressions ending in a preposition, e.g. in spite 
of, there's no point in..: 

• There's no point in waiting. 

• In spite of missing the train, we arrived on time. 

d. after a number of 'phrasal verbs' which are composed of a 
verb + preposition/adverb 

Example: 

to look forward to, to give up, to be for/ against, to take to, to put off, to 

keep on: 

. I look forward to hearing from you soon, (at the end of a letter) 

. When are you going to give up smoking? 

• She always puts off going to the dentist. 

• He kept on asking for money. 



NOTE: There are some phrasal verbs and other expressions that include the 



word 'to' as a preposition, not as part of a to-infinitive: - to look forward 
to, to take to, to be accustomed to, to be used to. It is important to 
recognise that 'to' is a preposition in these cases, as it must be followed by a 
gerund: 

. We are looking forward to seeing you. 

. I am used to waiting for buses. 

. She didn't really take to studying English. 

It is possible to check whether 'to' is a preposition or part of a to-infinitive: 
if you can put a noun or the pronoun 'it' after it, then it is a preposition and 
must be followed by a gerund: 

• I am accustomed to it (the cold). 

• I am accustomed to being cold. 

e. in compound nouns 

Example: 

. a driving lesson, a swimming pool, bird-watching, train-spotting 

It is clear that the meaning is that of a noun, not of a continuous verb. 
Example: 

• the pool is not swimming, it is a pool for swimming in. 

f . after the expressions: 

can't help, can't stand, it's no use/ good, and the adjective worth: 

• The elephant couldn't help falling in love with the mouse. 

• I can't stand being stuck in traffic jams. 
. It's no use/ good trying to escape. 

• It might be worth phoning the station to check the time of the train. 



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ING 1 FORM 



GERUND OR INFINITIVE? 



B. Verbs where there is a clear difference in meaning: 

Verbs marked with an asterisk* can also be followed by a that-clause. 



come 


mean* 


stop 


forget* 


regret* 


try 


go on 


remember* 





NOTES: 



Come: 



Come + gerund is like other verbs of movement followed by 
the gerund, and means that the subject is doing something 
as they move: 

• She came running across the field. 

Come + to-infinitive means that something happens or 
develops, perhaps outside the subject's control: 

. At first I thought he was crazy, but I've come to 

appreciate his sense of humour. 
. How did you come to be outside the wrong house? 

• This word has come to mean something quite 
different. 



Forget, regret and remember: 



When these verbs are followed by a gerund, the gerund 
refers to an action that happened earlier: 

• I remember locking the door ( = 1 remember now, I 
locked the door earlier) 

. He regretted speaking so rudely. ( = he regretted at 
some time in the past, he had spoken rudely at some 
earlier time in the past.) 

Forget is frequently used with 'never' in the simple future 
form: 

• I'll never forget meeting the Queen. 

When these verbs are followed by a to-infinitive, the 
infinitive refers to an action happening at the same time, or 
later: 



. I remembered to lock the door (=1 thought about it, 



then I did it.) 
• Don't forget to buy some eggs! ( = Please think about 

it and then do it.) 
. We regret to announce the late arrival of the 12.45 

from Paddington. ( = We feel sorry before we tell you 

this bad news.) 



Go on: 



Go on + gerund means to continue with an action: 

• He went on speaking for two hours. 

. I can't go on working like this - I'm exhausted. 

Go on + to-infinitive means to do the next action, which is 
often the next stage in a process: 

• After introducing her proposal, she went on to 
explain the benefits for the company. 

. J ohn Smith worked in local government for five 
years, then went on to become a Member of 
Parliament. 



Mean + gerund expresses what the result of an action will 
be, or what will be necessary: 

• If you take that job in London it will mean travelling 
for two hours every day. 

• We could take the ferry to France, but that will 
mean spending a night in a hotel. 

Mean + to-infinitive expresses an intention or a plan: 

. Did you mean to dial this number? 

. I mean to finish this j ob by the end of the week! 

. Sorry - I didn't mean to hurt you. 



Stop: 



Stop + gerund means to finish an action in progress: 

• I stopped working for them because the wages were 
so low. 
Stop tickling me! 

Stop + to-infinitive means to interrupt an activity in order 
to do something else, so the infinitive is used to express a 
purpose: 



• I stopped to have lunch. ( = 1 was working, or 

travelling, and I interrupted what I was doing in order 

to eat.) 
. It's difficult to concentrate on what you are doing if 

you have to stop to answer the phone every five 

minutes. 



Try + gerund means to experiment with an action that might 
be a solution to your problem. 

• If you have problems sleeping, you could try doing 
some yoga before you go to bed, or you could try 
drinking some warm milk. 

. 'I can't get in touch with Carl.' 'Have you tried e- 
mailing him?' 

Try + to-infinitive means to make an effort to do something. 
It may be something very difficult or even impossible: 

• The surgeons tried to save his life but he died on the 
operating table. 

. We'll try to phone at 6 o'clock, but it might be hard 
to find a public telephone. 

• Elephants and mice have to try to live together in 
harmony. 

^previous rejrl<Jj 



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ABOUT ANTHONY HUGHES 

Author of the Online English Grammar 

Anthony Hughes has been involved in education for the past twenty years. He spent his 
formative years in Australia and attended the Universities of Sydney (B.A. ), New England 
(M.Litt) and the University of New South Wales (Cert. TESOL) 

After receiving a Masters in English Literature and Language he went on to teach English in 
several countries including Australia, Switzerland and France. While in Switzerland he wrote 
and directed a six part audio-visual course for English language learners and was the 
director of the international education fair 'Mondolingua'. 

In 1995 he moved to Bristol in the UK and formed the Digital Education Network Ltd with 
David Blackie. 

The Digital Education Network (DEN) is now a world leader in the provision of educational 
information on the Internet and counts amongst its clients many of the world's top 
educational organisations. 

Charged with the development of the DEN websites and content and with the development 
of educational websites for clients around the world, he has become an expert in the 
development and design of high-end, database driven and interactive sites for education. 
Along with the technical expertise he has developed content in the form of the Online 
English Grammar which currently attracts over 180,000 monthly user sessions on DEN and of 
interactive games in the DEN test centre. He is currently working on a number of 
multimedia and DV video based projects for primary and secondary schools as well as a 
series on the use of English. 

In 1999 he formed ZEP Media Ltd to provide an online educational software shop and 
resource centre for schools and to act as a laboratory' for the development of educational 
applications using the new technologies. 

Apart from his business activities he has contributed articles and photographs to a number 
of magazines, written a screenplay on the life of Friedrich Nietzsche and maintains a strong 
interest in the development of creative learning applications using the new technologies. 

Professional, publishing and Online Grammar licensing enquiries can be sent to 
akh(5)zepmedia.com 



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WHICH ENGLISH? 



Trash or Rubbish? - Sorting out our English 

Colour or color? Socks or sox? Organisations or Organizations? 
Underground or subway? Gas or petrol? Fall or Autumn? Candy or 
sweets? Cookie or biscuit? Centre or Center, Trash or rubbish? 

I often get emails from users berating me for my terrible spelling. 
While I admit to a few glaring typos from time to time the emails 
are often concerned with spellings that have more to do with 
geography than with poor literacy skills. 

Just to confuse the issue a little more, I was born in England, went 
to Australia when I was five, was entirely educated in Australia, 
spent several years in the USA and Canada and then ten years in 
France, and now live in England married to a Colombian wife where 
the common language at home is French, where my wife speaks 
Spanish to the children, I speak English to them and they spend 
undue amounts of time listening to American TV shows like Sesame 
Street, Buffy the Vampire Killer and the Simpsons or listening to 
American rappers, English Spice Girls or, when forced, heroes from 
the seventies such as Van Morrison and James Taylor. And they 
suck vocabulary, expressions, idioms and grammar out of all of this 
and plonk it into their own English. In my home, as in many others 
around the world, English isn't something that you can pin down as 
you would a prize butterfly and say 'There it is! That is English'. 

There is no longer, if there ever was, a standard English to which 
all speakers should pay homage. Now we recognise as legitimate 
variations American English, Australian English, British English, 
Indian English, there is even a variety called Singlish from 
Singapore. You only have to have used an electronic spell checker 
to know that you can select from some of these English varieties 
when correcting your spelling in a word processor. 

Although it is true that we have a wonderfully rich global mapping 
of English which makes it possible for English speakers to almost 
immediately fix a fellow English speaker to a geographical area, it 
is also true that there is more that is similar among these English 
varieties than is dissimilar. If there wasn't, English speakers from 
different parts of the world would have absolutely no hope of 
understanding each other! In most cases it is pronunciation and not 
usage, vocabulary or grammar that makes a fellow English speaker 
from another part of the world, or sometimes even another part of 
the country, difficult to understand. 

In the Online English Grammar I try to remain open to the 
international and evolving character of English and, at the risk of 
falling into the sea, try to keep one foot each in British and 
American English - if I had more feet I would attempt to cover 
some of the other main English variations as well, but a shortage of 
feet is one of the many drawbacks of being a lowly biped. What this 
means is that I try to point out grammatical rules that may vary 
slightly depending on where you are, the same with spelling. As far 
as spelling goes for the actual explanations and examples I tend to 
use the Australian/British spellings. For example I use 
'organisation' rather than 'organization' and 'colour' rather than 
'color' and prefer 'program' to 'programme'. Australia has always 



top 



had the great advantage of being able to choose to follow the 
American or British ways or invent things for itself. However, if you 
look under the bonnet of these pages you will see that we are 
forced to use American English in the HTML which we use to code 
the pages - 'colour' is always 'color' and 'centre', 'center' there! 

The important thing to remember is that while spelling 'remember' 
as 'rember' is definately wrong, spelling 'socks' as 'sox' is not! 
That saying 'She speak English really well' is definately wrong (the 
verb 'speak' must be third person 'speaks' or used in another tense 
such as 'spoke'), saying 'She speaks English real well' may not be 
wrong (it is acceptable to use 'real' rather than 'really' in informal 
American English.) 

When visualising English always think of it as a writhing, many- 
headed, sensual, changing and wonderful creature and not some 
dry, changeless, inanimate measuring stick. 

That should avoid the urge to condemn other people's use of 
English before carefully thinking about what they have said and 
where they come from - perhaps they are even contributing 
something new, unique and colourful to the language. 

This may also slow the flow of emails arriving in my in-tray from 
angry users who think it is a disgrace that I consistently spell 
'center' as 'centre' - am I dyslexic? 

Anthony Hughes 

Author of the Online English Grammar 



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